The Influence of Spain: Marriage and Foreign Policy

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When was the official Spanish proposal of marriage presented to Mary by Renard?
10th October 1553
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When did Mary formally accept the official Spanish proposal of marriage?
End of October 1553
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Who were the possible suitors for Mary?
Edward Courtenay and Philip II of Spain
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What nationality was Edward Courtenay?
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What were the impressive credentials of Edward Courtenay?
Great grandson of Edward IV and his father Henry had been a devout Catholic and confidant of Mary herself
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When was Edward Courtenay's father Henry executed?
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How old was Edward Courtenay at the time that he was considered as a suitor for Mary?
27 years old
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Who in the Council advanced the possibility of a Courtenay marriage and why?
Gardiner as wanted to avoid a foreign marriage
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Why would a marriage with Courtenay have caused problems?
Faction, personal qualities
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Issue with Edward Courtenay - Faction
English husband would be expected to reward own supporters above others
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What supports the danger of an English marriage?
Actions of Seymour family from 1536-1552
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Issue with Edward Courtenay - Personal Qualities
Although intellectual was socially awkward, unreliable in religion and lacking in common sense
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Since what age had Edward Courtenay been virtually a prisoner?
Since the age of 12
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What was one reason why Mary preferred a Spanish marriage?
Largely because of her roots
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How old was Philip at time of proposed marriage?
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What was Philip's marital status at time of proposed marriage?
Widower with one son
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What was Philip's government experience?
Regent in Netherlands in 1549-50 and as Regent of Spain from 1551-4 alongside other times
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What were Philip's religious beliefs?
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Who supported Philip as candidate for English marriage?
Paget and his father the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
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How was Charles later to divide his territorial responsibilities?
Philip was to hold Spain and the Netherlands
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How was Charles keen to strengthen Philip's inheritance?
Through the addition of England
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Why would Philip be in a better position to counter balance power of France if he was King of England?
As already had Spain on southern border with France and Netherlands to its north
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Was Philip as enthusiastic as Mary or Charles V about the marriage?
No, seems to have been determined not to have been bound by terms of marriage and was somewhat slow to arrive in England
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Was Philip ever crowned King of England?
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In 1553 who did Mary discuss the possibility of marriage to Philip with?
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What was the advice of Mary's privy councillors?
Warned marriage could prove unpopular with those who objected to Spanish Catholicism and those who suspected England could become a pawn of Spain
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Did the House of Commons raise strong objections to the Spanish marriage?
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Did Mary listen to the advice of her most trusted Councillor, Stephen Gardiner?
No, he was against the marriage but she went ahead anyway.
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Was the government aware of plots, regarding a marriage of Elizabeth to Courtenay and the implications of this?
Yes - clear from a report in November 1553 to Charles V from Renard about a conversation between Mary, Paget and Renard on the English succession
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In a conversation between Mary, Paget and Renard in November 1553 who were the rival claimants to the throne established as?
Mary, Queen of Scots, Lady Frances and Lady Elizabeth
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Claim to the throne: Mary Queen of Scots
Promised bride of the Dauphin and had claim by right of descent
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Claim to the throne: Lady Frances
Wife of Duke of Suffolk and niece of Henry VIII, claim if that of Mary Queen of Scots excluded
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Claim to the throne: Lady Elizabeth
Mary's half sister
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Is there any real doubt that a majority of Councillors opposed the match?
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When did a Parliamentary delegation try to dissuade Mary from the Spanish marriage?
November 1553
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When did Mary accept the marriage treaty in front of the Council?
7th December 1553
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When did Mary accept the marriage treaty in front of Parliament?
April 1554
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What was the French fear regarding a marriage to Spain?
That a Spanish alliance would leadto renewal of war with Farnce
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What did the French ambassador work hard to do?
Promote opposition to the marraige
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Who was the French ambassador?
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What conspiracy was the French ambassador Noailles almost certainly involved in?
To marry Courtenay to Elizabeth and place them on the throne
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What ended French hopes of preventing the Anglo-Spanish alliance?
Failure of plot (about Courtenay marriage) defeat of Wyatt and failure of fellow conspirators to rebel
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Who planned the 1554 rebellion?
Sir Thomas Wyatt, Sir Peter Carew, Sir James Croft and the Duke of Suffolk
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Who actually rebelled?
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When was an agreement made on the Spanish marriage?
January 1554
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What advantages did the Spanish marriage give England?
Heir of Mary and Philip would inherit Netherlands; offering possibility of England establishing secure and substantial empire on contient
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What would happen if Mary had a child with Philip and his existing son had died childless before Philip's death?
Any child of Mary's would inherit the whole Spanish Empire, including the Americas and much of Italy
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What was the name of Philip's son?
Don Carlos
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What was Philip prohibited from doing?
Exercising any power in England and from appointing any Spaniards to English offices
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What was the catalyst for the only rebellion of Mary's reign?
The Spanish marriage
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When did Mary marry Philip?
25th July 1554
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Was the Spanish marriage unpopular among the English people?
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Did Mary have a traditional view of females?
Yes - wanted a husband to support her
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Was Mary influenced by Philip?
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Was Philip II strongly Catholic?
Yes, meaning that he could support the Catholic change Mary hoped for
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When was the first English Queen?
Matilda, centuries before
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Why was Philip better than the other suitors?
Philip had control over an empire that included the Netherlands
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Who had been Mary's strongest supporters?
Her Spanish relatives
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What was the importance of the Netherlands?
It was crucial to hte English economy
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What was a negative clause in the marriage agreement?
Stipulated that Philip should aid Mary in governing her kingdom
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How did the loophole that Philip should aid Mary influence events?
Could use it to draw England into continental conflict
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What shows the extent of Mary's desperation regarding the marriage?
Phantom pregnancies in 1554 and 1557
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What was the marriage wrongly blamed for by merchants?
Decline in wool trade with Netherlands
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By what year was it evident to Philip that there was no possibility of Mary leaving a child and what did he do?
1555 - Returned to Spain, which he had inherited on his father's abdication that year
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When did Philip briefly return to England?
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What was Philip's sole purpose when he briefly returned to England in 1556?
Persuade Mary to join him in a war against France
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Although the Privy Council was opposed to a war in France, what led England to war?
Her infatuation with Philip and belief she needed his advice
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Italian Wars
Sometimes referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as Habsburg-Valois Wars
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When did the Italian Wars last from and to?
1494 to 1559
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At various times who was involved in the Italian Wars?
Most of city-states of Italy, Papal States and most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, HRE, England and Scotland)
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What involved England in the Habsburg-Valois conflict in the 1550s?
Marriage to Philip
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What were the events in foreign policy in Mary's reign?
Development of military and naval system and French War 1557-8
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What was the first step in development of military and naval system?
Establishment of ship rebuilding programme 1555
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What enhanced the ship rebuilding programme established in 1555?
In 1557 a repair programme begun
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Where did the funds for the 1557 repair programme come from?
Funds allocated by Privy Council
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Why was a new militia system introduced?
Due to shortcomings seen as a result of war with France
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What did the Arms Act (1558) do?
Provide weapons for troops
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What did the Militia Act (1558) do?
Introduced penalties for failure to respond to muster
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What can be said about development of military and naval system under Mary?
Laid foundations of military and naval system that allowed Elizabeth to defeat armada
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In 1560 what aspects of Mary's naval system would be vital?
Elizabeth used the vessels supplied by the programmes of 1555 and 1557
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What did the Arms Act achieve?
Overcome appalling deficiencies in armaments
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What did the Militia Act improve?
Efficiency in mustering troops
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What can be said negatively regarding development of military and naval system?
Now has resources to be involve in conflict, expectation to be embroiled as married to Philip
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Although the war with France was a failure, what positive can be drawn from this?
Allowed changes to be made
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What is another disadvantage of the development of military and naval system under Mary?
Financial cost
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When was England involved in the French war?
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When did the war between France and Spain begin?
January 1557
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Why did England stop being neutral in the conflict between France and Spai?
When there was revelation of French plans to depose Mary
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What did the Privy Council sanction in June 1557?
Dispatch of 7000 troops led by Pembroke to fight in France
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What happened that surprised the English forces in France?
Unexpected mid-winter revenge attack on fortified Calais by Duke of Guise
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Who was the Commander of Calais that was taken by surprie?
Lord Wentforth
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What can be the success of the French War 1557-8?
Capture of St Quentin in Battle of St Quentin
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If the war had ended with the capture of St Quentin, how would her foreign policy be judged?
More favourably
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What was the problem with English involvement in France?
Main victory of Spain over France had already been achieved when arrived - cost of campaign and didnt' even help achieve goal
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What happened to the town of St Quentin?
Gave it to the Spanish
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Rather than being due to the conditions of Calais defences, what led to its loss in January 1558?
Wentworth's failure to take the French threat seriously
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What did Philip insist on returned to England during peace negotiations but only did so up to Mary's death?
Return of Calais
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What Treaty retained Calais to the French?
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
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When was the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis signed?
April 1559
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What would have had to happen for a more favourable attitude to the marriage?
Produced heir - religious reform safeguarded and position on continent strengthened as would hold Netherlands
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What is the factor that leads Mary's reign to be seen as a failure?
Failed to produce an heir and consolidate policies through this
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What fear by a minority at the time became a reality?
Philip would use England to pursue ambitions against France
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What can be seen as the only positive of loss of Calais, that was not thought of at the time?
England would benefit financially as did not need to maintain three fortresses
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What was the overwhelming feeling about the loss of Calais?
National humiliation
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Was Calais England's last foothold on the continent?
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At the time of Mary's death, did many mourn her passing?
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What led to ineptitude?
Stubborn pursuit of policies without full support of Privy Council and political inexperience
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What was Elizabeth's accession seen as?
Celebrated, bringing some relief
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What prevented Mary from bearing a child?
Physical and medical conditions
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What meant that the Catholicism of England was only temporary?
Failure to bear a child and shortness of reign
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When did Elizabeth resume moves towards Protestantism?
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What has Mary's system of government with expanded Privy Council been viewed as?
Unwieldy and ineffective
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In what way did Mary leave the country in better condition?
Privy Council with inner core and special committees to deal with certain issues, financial reforms put finances on better footing and her revival of army and navy was vital to enable Elizabeth to resist Spanish in 1558
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Can Mary's reign be entirely dismissed as a disaster?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


When did Mary formally accept the official Spanish proposal of marriage?


End of October 1553

Card 3


Who were the possible suitors for Mary?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What nationality was Edward Courtenay?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were the impressive credentials of Edward Courtenay?


Preview of the front of card 5
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