The Heart and Heart Disease

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  • Created by: elyornais
  • Created on: 27-01-15 19:55
What is the job of the aorta?
Carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except lungs.
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What is the job of the vena cava?
Brings deoxygenated blood back from the tissues of the body.
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What is the job of the pulmonary artery?
Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs where oxygen is replenished and carbon dioxide is removed.
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What is the job of the pulmonary vein?
To bring oxygenated blood back from the lungs.
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Which valves are open and which valves are shut during diastole(relaxation)?
Atrioventricular valves are open so the semi-lunar valves are shut.
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What happens during atrial systole?
The atria contract, the atrioventricular valves are open and blood flows into the ventricles.
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What happens during ventricular systole?
Atria relaxes, ventricles contract, forcing semi-lunar valves open so that blood can flow into the pulmonary arteries and aorta.
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Why is the wall of the left ventricle much thicker than the wall of the right ventricle?
Because it must pump blood all around the body while the right only pumps blood to the adjacent lungs.
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What is the purpose of valves?
Prevents backflow.
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How do you work out cardiac output?
Cardiac output(dm3min-1) = heart rate (beats per minute) * Stroke volume (dm3)
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Where is the sinoatrial node found and what does it do?
It's found in the wall of the right atrium and it determines the beat of the heart like a pacemaker.
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How do the atria contract?
From the wave of electrical activity sent from the SAN.
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Where does the wave of electrical activity go after causing atria to contract?
To the atrioventricular node.
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After the wave has traveled along the bundle of His, where does it go?
To the base of the ventricles, causing them to contract from the apex to the heart upwards at the same time.
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Why is there a short delay before the ventricles contract?
So that the atria have emptied all the blood.
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What is an atheroma?
Begins as fatty streaks that are accumulations of white blood cells that have taken up LDLs. They build up to form a plaque in the artery wall made from cholesterol, fibres and dead muscle cell.
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What affect does an atheroma have on an artery?
Narrows the artery so that blood flow is reduced. Increases the risk of thrombosis and aneurysm.
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What is thrombosis?
Formation of blood clot caused by an atheroma breaking through the endothelium of the blood vessel when it forms a rough surface.
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What is an aneurysm?
Weakened points of the artery wall swelling to form a balloon like, blood-filled structure. They can burst, causing haemorrhage so loss of blood to the region of body.
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How can a myocardial infarction occur?
When blood supply is cut off from heart muscle because a coronary artery is blocked by a thrombus. Oxygen supply will be reduced so the heart may stop beating.
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How does carbon monoxide affect our oxygen supply?
It irreversibly combines with haemoglobin and reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. The heart must work harder to supply oxygen to tissues and can lead to high blood pressure. Lack of oxygen to heart muscle causes mycardial infarction.
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Why is nicotine harmful to us?
Stimulates production of adrenaline, which increases heart rate and blood pressure. Also makes red blood cells more sticky- higher risk of thrombosis.
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How does high blood pressure increase the risk of heart disease?
Heart must work harder. Means arteries are more likely to develop an aneurysm. Walls of arteries may become thickened and harden, restricting blood flow.
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Why is it bad to intake high levels of salt?
Increases blood pressure.
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Why shouldn't we consume high levels of saturated fat?
Increases LDLs level and blood cholesterol.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the job of the vena cava?

Back

Brings deoxygenated blood back from the tissues of the body.

Card 3

Front

What is the job of the pulmonary artery?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the job of the pulmonary vein?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which valves are open and which valves are shut during diastole(relaxation)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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