the heart

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what does the superior vena cava do?
returns deoxygenated blood from the bottom half of the body to the heart
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what does the inferior vena cava do?
returns deoxygenated blood from the top half of the body to the heart
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what does the right atrium do?
blood enters from both vena cava
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what does the tricuspid valve do?
atrial systole forces the valve open by increasing pressure
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what does the semi-lunar valve do?
ventricular systole forces blood through the valve into pulmonary artery/aorta
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what does the pulmonary artery do?
takes blood to lungs for oxygenation
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what does the pulmonary vein do?
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
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what does the left atrium do?
blood enters from the pulmonary vein
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what does the bicuspid valve do?
atrial systole forces the bicuspid valve shut
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what does the left ventricle do?
pressure builds to shut the bicuspid valve
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what does the cardiac muscle do?
contracts to pump the blood
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where is it thicker and why?
on the left because the blood has to be pumped further
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what is atrial systole?
both atria contract at the same time
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what is ventricular systole?
both ventricles contract at the same time
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what is diastole?
when all chambers relax
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what do the tendons do?
hold the atrioventricular valves in place during ventricular systole
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what do the atrioventricular valves do?
prevent the back flow of blood into the atria
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what does the septum do?
prevents blood flowing ventricle to ventricle during contraction therefore stopping oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixing
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what does the SAN do?
initiate a wave of electrical activity
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where does this spread and what does it cause?
across both atria causing them to contract
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where isn't it spread and why?
across the ventricles because of a layer of non-conducting tissue
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where does the AVN lie?
between the atria
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what does the AVN do?
send electrical activity down the bundle of his
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where is the signal carried?
to the apex of the ventricles, rapidly
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what do the ventricles do?
contract upwards
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what is an atheroma?
a build up of fatty deposits in the endothelium of the artery.
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describe its formation.
begins as streaks but builds to a plaque made up of dead cells, fibres, and cholesterol
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what happens as the atheroma bulges?
the lumen gets smaller which reduces blood flow.
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what does it increase the risk of developing?
-thrombosis. -aneurysm.
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where does an aneurysm form?
in weakened points in the artery
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what is an aneurysm?
a blood-filled structure which causes the artery to balloon out which weakens the artery further
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what happens before it ruptures?
the patient experiences headaches and vision impairment
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what does rupture lead to?
haemorrage
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what can an aneurysm lead to?
a stroke or cardiovascular problems
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what is a thrombus?
a blood clot
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why does it form?
because the rough surface of the atheroma disrupts the smooth flow of blood
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what does a thrombus do?
blocks the blood vessel which reduces blood flow which cause blood deprived tissues to diewhat can
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what else can a thrombus do?
travel in the blood stream and block other arteries
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what is angina?
a pain in the chest
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what is it due to?
a limited amount of O2 being supplied to the heart > atherosclerosis
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when is pain more prominent?
when stress/exercise levels are high
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what is used to treat angina?
blood thinners or stents
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in a myocardial infarction, where do embolisms become lodged?
in the coronary artery
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what are the risk factors of CHD?
-high levels of cholesterol > built-up of atheroma. -smoking > blood is sticky and blockages are caused. -high B.P > reduction in blood flow because lumen is narrowed.
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Card 2

Front

what does the inferior vena cava do?

Back

returns deoxygenated blood from the top half of the body to the heart

Card 3

Front

what does the right atrium do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what does the tricuspid valve do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does the semi-lunar valve do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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