The Glorious Revolution 1888-89

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Describe James I' personality
Arrogant and unintelligent, saw any form of opposition as treason (similar to Charles I that way), thought that his dad was too lenient which is what ultimately led to his defeat- open Catholicism made his position weaker
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What were James' aims?
To improve the position of Catholics which included the repeal of the Test Acts and Corporation Act- didn't just want to tolerate Catholics but actually wanted to give them power & secure the throne for his infant son
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Why did James lose the support of Tories?
Their loyalty the church overrode their loyalty to the monarchy- especially one that was trying to change the Church of England religious settlement
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What was Monmouth's Rising?
Duke of Monmouth began to raise troops when James secured the throne (West England)- he called for annual parliaments and the repeal of laws against nonconformity
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Why did Monmouth's Rising fail?
Rebels were crushed by the standing army of 8,000 from Charles' reign- Monmouth was executed in 1685
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Why did all of the 1685 rebellions fail?
Lack of support from moderates, disorganisation of the uprisings, lack of military support and rapid government response
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Describe James' first parliament
Majority Tory- only 57 Whigs out of 532 MPs, voted a substantial amount of money (£2mil a year) and voted for James to extend his army troops to 20,000- James used dispensing power to appoint 90 Catholics to the army
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How did parliament react to James' use of dispensing power?
They opposed it due to the concern that James would be able to make the army solely support him
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Why did James prologue parliament?
Parliament threatened to dismiss the 90 Catholic officers that James appointed by use of the Test Act so James prorogued them and missed out on a grant of £700,000
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What was Godden vs Hales 1886?
Test case against Hales, a Catholic who had served in the army. Judges voted 11/12 in James' favour
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Did James have the support of the Tories?
No they did little to stop anti-Catholic riots
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How did James respond to the anti-Catholic riots?
Issued a Declaration to Preachers forbidding attacks on the Catholic Church by ministers
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How did Compton respond to James' Declaration to Preachers?
He suspended any catholic clergymen- as a result James removed Compton
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How did James improve the position of the Old English Catholics in Ireland?
Appointed the Earl of Tyrconnel as his Lord Deputy (Catholic) & remodelled the Irish army so that it was majority Catholic, remodelled the judiciary to favour Catholicism and attempted to change the land settlement- making Protestants give up land
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What James' promotion do to Ireland?
Made the situation there even more fragile
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How did James react when the Scottish Parliament refused his proposal of Catholic toleration?
Used his prerogative- proclaimed the freedom of worship of Catholics and Quakers but not Presbyterians
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What did James' Scottish policy cause?
Division of the Scottish elite, opposition from the parliament, growth of anti-popery feeling, disaffection of many churchmen & alienation of the Privy Council
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What did the 1687 Declaration of Indulgence state?
Complete toleration, all Catholics had a right to office, right of worship for Presbyterians and relaxation of penal laws- suspended the Test Acts, Corporation Act and Penal laws
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How did Miller (2000) explain the link between Hames' a declaration of Indulgence and his economic policies?
His abandonment of Anglicans and adoption of nonconformists was also an economic shift away from the gentry and and landowners to investment in towns and cities to do with trade
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Did James approach the dissenters in the same way he approached the Catholics?
No, he didn't allow dissenters to attend university and didn't allow them to become army officers
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Did William of Orange support James' Declaration of Indulgence?
No, James asked William and Mary for a supporting statement but instead they stated their opposition- however they agreed to tolerate Catholics
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How did parliament vote on James' use of Dispensing Power?
Secured a seven to five judgement- James then removed 4 judges (despite his short reign he removed more judges than any other monarch in the 17th century)
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After James dissolved parliament in 1687, he tried to ensure that the next parliament would repeal the test act and penal laws, how did he do this?
Asked Leuitennants to ask JPs and Deputy Leuitennants whether if they were elected they would repeal penal laws, help elect people who will support repeal and whether they will support the Declaration of Indulgence
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How many responded to James' three queries? How did James manage this?
1/3 and he increased the purges of local governments
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What political and religious opposition did James encounter 1688-9?
Churchmen refused to read out the Declaration of Indulgence as it was deemed illegal by parliament- Archbishop Sancroft write a petition expressing this belief
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Why was this opposition an extreme problem?
These men were not radicals and should therefore have been James' natural allies
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How did the judges vote on this issue of legality?
They acquitted the churchmen as only they have the power to repeal laws- however two judges that argued against Janes were removed
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Why did William of Orange take an opposing stance to James in 1688?
James and his wife Mary had a son, this suggested that an Engkush Catholic monarchy would continue and that William's wife Nary (James' sister) would no longer get the throne
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How did William gain an invitation to invade England?
Sent an emissary over to persuade James' opponents to allow William to invade, the 'immortal seven' wrote back agreeing to the invasion
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Why was an invasion of England in the Dutch interests?
William had concerns that now James had a male heir he would go back to supporting France and enter a war against the Dutch, plus it would benefit the Dtuch economically because of trade and Mary might be next inline to the throne
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Who had William formed an alliance with?
Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden and some German States- enough to encircle the French
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Why was invading England a risk for William?
James was spending £530,000 on the military per year compared to Charles' £200,000
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Why did William want to keep the invasion secret?
Louis threatened William saying that if he invaded England he would invade the Dutch Rep (however Louis thought William had left it too long to invade and therefore stationed his troops somewhere else)- James could also ask for help
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What did James compromise with his opposition?
Promised to secure the Church of England and the act of uniformity, dissolve the commission for ecclesiastical causes, allow London and some other towns their charters back and removed Sunderland from his council?
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How did William invade?
Landed at the port of Tibay and secured Exeter, called for a free parliament from here- progressed towards London and James retreated and then fled
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What strengths did James initially have?
Control of London and a larger standing army of 53,000 men
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Why did James' disappearance weaken his position?
He had disposed of the Great Seal in the Thames- many who were reluctant to support William now did as it was decided that James had 'withdrawn himself'
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After James' flee William called for advice from an irregular assembly, who?
All surviving MPs from Charles' court & some representatives from the Commons and the Lord Mayor
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What advice did this assemble give William?
They invited William to take over the government, and advised him to call elections
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What did the Whigs believe should happen in this situation?
Believed that because James had left he had forfeited the throne and as a result the throne was now vacant
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How did the Tories respond to this?
James was only incapacitated and at most William and Mary should be regents to the throne
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What was the middle ground between the Tories and the Whigs on the matter of the Glorious Revolution?
They both wanted to re-establish political stability by appealing to a wide range of opinions
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What was the statement presented? (Only three Tories disagreed)
King James II had broken the contract between the King and the people and had therefore withdrawn himself from the kingdom, the throne was now vacant
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How did William respond to this statement?
He claimed that he would go back to Holland if he was not made King
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What provisions were given to William?
Mary would share the title but not the power, if Mary died and William remarried again those children would go behind Ann in the line of succession
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What was the Declaration of Rights 1689?
No Catholics would inherit the throne, nob statement that James had been disposed or that he broke a contract and it didn't refer to William and Mary as lawful or rightful rulers
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What does de facto mean?
A monarch or government in possession of power e.g. William and Mary
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What does de jure mean?
A monarch or government recognised as the legal and legitimate power e.g. Charles II or James II
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What was the Bill of Rights 1689?
Diluted version of the Declaration of Rights
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What was the Mutiny Act 1689?
No army could be created without the permission of parliament
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What was the Toleration Act?
Exempted dissenters from penal laws but only if they signed an oath of allegiance stating that they did not believe in transubstantiation, however they could still not enter public office due to the rest and corporation acts still remaining
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How much money did parliament grant the King?
£1.2 million, half for civil authority and half for military- crown immediately went into debt
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What did Smith (1998) say about the financial revolution?
Immensely significant for the future because parliament had secured themselves power all of the time and this financial settlement allowed them to force ideas onto the king
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What was the Scottish Claim of Rights?
Their acceptance that Shane's had fled and therefore withdrawn from the throne leaving it vacant- William and Mary accepted the Scottish throne and worked to gain the acceptance of Presbyterians
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How does Harris explain the theory that there were three revolutions?
England- conservative, Scotland- more radical, overthrown the reformation and religious settlement & Ireland- attempted Icatholic revolution and counterrevolution
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How has the position of parliament changed?
A lot stronger, monarch relied on them heavily began to oversee foreign policy and impact the appointments of ministers and passing of laws
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Card 2

Front

What were James' aims?

Back

To improve the position of Catholics which included the repeal of the Test Acts and Corporation Act- didn't just want to tolerate Catholics but actually wanted to give them power & secure the throne for his infant son

Card 3

Front

Why did James lose the support of Tories?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was Monmouth's Rising?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Why did Monmouth's Rising fail?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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