The genetic code and cell function

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Name the 2 major functions of DNA in a cell
Replication in dividing cells, carrying informatoin for protien synthesis in all cells
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when does dna replication take place
interphase
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Which bond breaks first during DNA replication
Hydrogen
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What enzyme catalyses the addition of free nucleotides to the exposed bases
DNA polymerase
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Each chain acts as a _________ so free nuclotides can be joined to their __________ bases by ___________
Template, complementry, DNA polymerase
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How many molocules of DNA result from semi comservative replication
2
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Where do the two olocules come from
each has one stand old DNA, one strand new
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what do genes control
The formation of enzyme which are protiens
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define the term gene
length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide
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How many different types of amino acids are there
over 20
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how many bases dos the triplet code have
3
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Which codes do not code for amino acids
stop and start codes
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What does the sequence of bases in the DNA chain code for
the sequence of amino acids in a poly peptide
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Each amino acid is coded for by the triplet code, called a _____
Codon
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what does the term 'all codons are universal' mean
they are exactly the same for all living organism
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each triplet code is read seperatly, it is said to be-
non overlapping
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What is the functoin of ribisomes situated in the cytoplasm
to provide a suitable surface for the attachment of mRna and the assembly of protien
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Which comes first, transcription or translation?
Transcription
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What area does DNA helicase work on
The cistron
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What does DNA helicase do
Break hydrogen binds betwwen the bases, causing the 2 trands to seperate and expose the nucleotide bases in that region
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Which enzyme links to the template strand of DNA
RNA polymerase
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where does the RNA polymerase link
the begininng of the sequence to be copied
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What does transcription occur
When the free RNA nucleotides align themselves opposite the template strand
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what is each amino acod coded for by
DNA codon
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What carries complementry RNA codons
mRNA molocules
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how does the mRNA carry the DNA code out of the nucleaus
via the nuclear pore
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where does the mRNA carry the DNA code to
cytoplasm
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How many sub units does a ribosome have
2- 1 smaller, 1 bigger
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how many sites of attachment are there in a ribosome
2
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where does the ribosome become attached
To the start Codon
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What type of bond forms between two amino acids
peptide bond
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What are the functions of the 2 sites
One is forbinding tRNA with the growing polypeptide, and the other is for tRNA carrying the next amino acid in the sequence
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What does translation by ribosomes allow
The assembly of amino acids into polypeptides according to the original DNA code
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this process continues until the _____ codon is reached
Stop
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What happens to the tRNA after it is released from its specific amino acid
It returns to the amino acid pool in the cell
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Which meisois has a division identical to mitosos
two
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It what cells are centrioles present
Animals and lower plants
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How many strands does a bivalent consist of
4
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what pordices new genetic combinations
random mixture of maternal and paternal chromasomes
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What occurs during the telophase
Cytokinesis
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what is the definition of the term genotype
the genetic make up of an organism
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Name 3 ways of creating variety
genotype of one parent mixed iwth naother when gametes fuse, different combinations of maternal and paternal chormoasomes, crossing over diring chiasmata
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

when does dna replication take place

Back

interphase

Card 3

Front

Which bond breaks first during DNA replication

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What enzyme catalyses the addition of free nucleotides to the exposed bases

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Each chain acts as a _________ so free nuclotides can be joined to their __________ bases by ___________

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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