The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry

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What are the three states of matter?
Solids, Liquids and Gases.
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What are all substances made of?
atoms.
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What is an element?
A substance made up of only one type of atom.
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About how many elements are there and where are they shown?
There are about 100 elements shown in the periodic table.
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What do the groups in the periodic table contain?
The groups contain elements with similar properties.
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Where do metals and non-metals appear in the periodic table?
Metals are on the left, non-metals are on the right.
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How are the atoms in an element represented? Give an example.
Using a chemical symbol, for example O represents an atom of Oxygen.
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Describe the structure of an atom.
Atoms have a small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons, and around which are electrons.
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What are the relative electrical charges of the subatomic particles?
Proton: +1 Neutron: 0 Electron: -1
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Why do atoms have no overall electrical charge?
In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. Therefore, the charges cancel each other out.
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What is the atomic number of an atom in an element?
The number of protons in an atom of an element is the atomic number.
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What is the mass number of an atom in an element?
The sum of the number of neutrons and electrons in an atom of an element is the mass number.
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What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
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What do electrons occupy?
Energy levels/shells.
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The electrons in an atom occupy the _______ _________ _____.
The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available shell.
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How is the periodic table arranged?
In order of atomic number.
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Why is the periodic table arranged as it is?
So that elements with similar properties are in groups.
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Why is it called the periodic table?
Because elements with similar properties occur at regular intervals.
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What makes elements have similar properties?
They have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels.
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What are noble gases?
The elements in Group 0 in the periodic table.
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Why are noble gases unreactive?
They are unreactive because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons.
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How many electrons do the noble gases have in their outer energy levels?
8, except for helium which only has 2.
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Why do atoms react to form compounds?
They can share their outer electrons to create a full outer energy level.
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How can atoms get a full outer shell?
They can share their outer electrons or transfer electrons.
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If electrons are transferred, what type of bond is formed?
an ionic bond.
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If electrons are shared what type of bond is formed?
a covalent bond.
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Complete: The electrons in an atom are arranged around the (a) _______ in shells ((b)_____levels). All elements in the same group of the (c)______ table have the same number of (d)______ in their outer (e)_______.
(a) nucleus (b) energy (c) periodic (d) electrons (e) shells/energy levels
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Describe what is seen when small pieces of Li, Na and K are placed into water.
They start to fizz away and react with the water to produce gasses. They all have more kinetic energy and they float above the water.
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Explain why the elements in Group 1 react in the same way.
They all have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.
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Complete the word equation: sodium+water--> ______ ______+_____
--> sodium hydroxide+hydrogen
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Magnesium has the electronic structure 2,8,2. Why is it in Group 2 of the periodic table?
Because it has 2 electrons in it's outer shell.
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Calcium has the atomic number 20. Write the electronic arrangement for calcium.
2,8,8,2.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are all substances made of?

Back

atoms.

Card 3

Front

What is an element?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

About how many elements are there and where are they shown?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do the groups in the periodic table contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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