The Executive 45-Mark Essay Plans

  • Created by: ceriann
  • Created on: 28-04-13 13:19
To what extent is the modern presidency an ‘imperial presidency’? (45 marks)
Schlesinger; what is the modern presidency?; Bush's presidency was said to revive the presidency; expanded use of executive orders and the use of military orders; Obama has exerted unilateral power; FP is strong (Clinton, Bush, Obama + N. Korea)
1 of 10
To what extent is the modern presidency an ‘imperial presidency’? (continued)
Post-Nixon Congress reigned in power --> War powers Act; depends on events (Bush); checks and balances remain; depends on Congress majority; Congress declares war.
2 of 10
To what extent do Presidents control foreign policy? (45 marks)
Schlesinger; Neustadt; executive agreements do not need Senate approval; President appoints senior figures (John Kerry); Wildavsky; Pres in control of minor disagreements.
3 of 10
To what extent do Presidents control foreign policy? (continued)
War Powers Act; Congress controls most; Public opinion; the federal bureaucracy; Supreme Court.
4 of 10
‘Presidential careers can never live up to expectations.’ Discuss. (45 marks)
Wildavsky; Congress more powerful - overriding vetoes; the need for 1st term presidents to focus on re-election straight away; lame duck; the power of PGs; dependence on Congress.
5 of 10
‘Presidential careers can never live up to expectations.’ Discuss. (continued)
Executive Orders avoid Congress; autonomy in FP; head of state role means that the president demands respect; presidents can see favourable poll ratings even with the opposing party in control of Congress.
6 of 10
‘The power of the President is limited to the power to persuade.’ Discuss. (45 marks)
Neustadt; dependence on Congress; even the president's own party in Congress can ignore presidential legislation.
7 of 10
‘The power of the President is limited to the power to persuade.’ Discuss. (continued)
Howell; the mandate of the president may mean that he doesn't need much support; executive orders; if persuasion fails, the president can veto legislation; in some cases, the president can act independently of Congress.
8 of 10
'There are no effective checks on presidential power.’ Discuss. (45 marks)
Congress' powers - the confirmation of appointments • ratification of treaties • oversight of government departments • investigations and impeachment • consideration of presidential legislative proposals • the congressional power to declare war.
9 of 10
There are no effective checks on presidential power.’ Discuss. (continued)
There are a number of loopholes the President benefits from in respect of foreign affairs; The judiciary has only one check – the power of judicial review (however, note Watergate).
10 of 10

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

To what extent is the modern presidency an ‘imperial presidency’? (continued)

Back

Post-Nixon Congress reigned in power --> War powers Act; depends on events (Bush); checks and balances remain; depends on Congress majority; Congress declares war.

Card 3

Front

To what extent do Presidents control foreign policy? (45 marks)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

To what extent do Presidents control foreign policy? (continued)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

‘Presidential careers can never live up to expectations.’ Discuss. (45 marks)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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