The Evolutionary Explanation of Aggression

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What are the 4 main drives of animal and human behaviour that Lorenz outlines?
(1) Fear (2) Reproduction (3) Hunger (4) Aggression
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What are the 3 main functions of aggression?
(1) Selecting the fittest and strongest mating partners (2) Ensuring the survival of the young (3) Securing territories
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What is ritualised aggression?
The type of aggression that is shown to assert power and maintain status. It is particularly shown in social life and within tribes. Through its use, there is rarely any real damage done.
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What is an appeasement tactic?
A tactic used by an animal to admit defeat and show submissive behaviour to prevent attack from an opponent.
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According to Fromm (1973), what are the two forms of human aggression?
Benign Aggression and Malignant Aggression
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What is benign aggression? Give an example of it.
It involves acting impulsively particularly if threatened. (e.g. a parent defending their child from harm)
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What is malignant aggression? Give an example of it.
It involves the performing of an evil act that is not instinctive. (e.g. organised violence such as gang warfare or ethnic cleansing)
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According to Nelson (1974), what are the 3 basic factors that can affect aggression?
(1) Process of Learning (2) Structural Causes (3) Psychological Causes
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What does Tinbergen (1968) say about the use of aggression by humans?
Humans do not use aggression as part of an elaborate system of ritual, like securing mating partners but to harm one another.
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What does 'adaptive' mean?
A term that refers to feature or characteristic that is a product of evolution. It can eventually become innate.
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According to the evolutionary explanation, what is one of the key things that drives sexual selection and natural selection?
Aggression
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What does Buss (1999) say the purpose of female-to-female aggression is?
The aim of it is to reduce the attractiveness of competitors in the eyes of males. (e.g. telling James that Jessica has an STD, which reduces her chances of having children)
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What types of infidelity do men and women fear?
Men fear sexual infidelity. Women fear emotional infidelity.
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Why do men fear sexual infidelity?
They do not want to invest in an offspring that does not belong to them.
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Why do women fear emotional infidelity?
They do not want men to move their valuable resources to another woman with whom they have fallen in love.
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What is the purpose of mate-retention strategies?
Males usually use them to deter female mates from leaving them because if they left, that would reduce their chances of achieving reproductive success, which is to pass on their genes.
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What do sexual infidelity and sexual jealousy lead humans to do?
It leads them to become aggressive in order to eliminate the threats they face.
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What does the evolutionary approach suggest about homicide?
It suggests that it is an evolved behaviour.
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What do females seek in males, and what effect does this have on males?
Females seek dominance in men and this has led men to evolve into beings that wish to portray dominance to potential mating partners. This therefore triggers some aggression in them.
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Why does the evolutionary explanation of aggression give rise to the nature vs. nurture debate?
It raises the nature vs. nurture debate because it ignores the influence of socialisation and other social factors. It focuses only on how aggressive behaviour is a product of nature and evolution, rather than social conditioning.
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Card 2

Front

What are the 3 main functions of aggression?

Back

(1) Selecting the fittest and strongest mating partners (2) Ensuring the survival of the young (3) Securing territories

Card 3

Front

What is ritualised aggression?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an appeasement tactic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

According to Fromm (1973), what are the two forms of human aggression?

Back

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