The Evolution of Government 1536-1547 Part 2

Administration and Centralisation

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What was the Court of Chancery?
A writing office that recorded the King's decision, sent out instructions in writing and resolved disputes.
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According to David Loades, did the role of the Court of Chancery change much?
It remained largely unchanged and writs "continued to be essential for what might be termed the transmission of government."
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Who appointed royal office holders and what were they in charge of?
Appointed by the King and in charge of the daily management of various government departments
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What were the main offices in 1536?
Lord Chancellor and Lord Treasurer
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In 1536, before Cromwell's role, in administration was there a clear line between government and household role?
No clear line
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What roles spanned both the royal household and affairs of state?
Roles such as Lord Chamberlain and Lord Privy Seal
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Give an example of a number of household officers who served the King in a personal capacity but could undertake other responsibilities as he directed?
Treasurer of the Chamber, the king's Secretary and the Groom of the Stool
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What is an example of the importance of household officers?
Consider the death of Henry VIII and the rise of Somerset
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What could the King also do to meet new requirements or improve efficiency?
Devise new offices such as Vicegerent in Spirituals
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What was the main role of the Royal Council?
Advise the King
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Who was in the Royal Council?
Higher clergy, judges, nobility and courtiers
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What was the benefit of membership to the Royal Council?
Not status but instead power and influence.
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Why did the number in the Royal Council sometimes exceed 50?
As there was effort made to include most interests and factions.
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What roles could councillors be engaged in?
Much smaller numbers carried out most of work. Could work with Prerogative Court of Star Chamber, the Courts of Requests and Regional Councils without attending the King
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What does Peter Servini say about the importance of the royal council?
"it appears there were about 25 members who were summoned regularly and frequently, and that a normal meeting consisted of less than ten memers,:
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What does Elton hold Cromwell responsible for regarding administration?
Replacement of large Council of 70-90 members with more formal and smaller council of 20 (at one stage memberrs of council increased to 33) q
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What marked the beginning of Cromwell's rise to power?
His inclusion in 'council attendant' group. At early stage he played a significant role in managing council. In 1536 formalised when he became Principal Secretary.
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What was a contributor to change?
Pilgrimage of Grace.
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How did Cromwell grow his power and how can this be seen as a negative?
Utilised opportunities for power BUT did not try to institutionalise power to pass on to successor.
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What did Cromwell run that reported directly to him?
A network of spies at home and abroad.
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What did local institutions and JPs do?
Local institutions governed and administered justice. JPs dealt with local administration and petty crime.
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Where did the laws by which JPs operate come from?
Statute law
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What did many think about government and local affairs?
Separate, disliked government interference in local affairs. Whether interference regarded favourably depended on interests and attitudes of those involved.
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Who dealt with local law and order?
Local assizes and JPs
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Who was the traditional officer of the Shire?
The Sheriff
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What was happening to the role of the Sheriff before Cromwell revolutionised?
Declining in importance with the JPs taking on increasing range of duties in an unpaid role which carried considerable status.
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In the case of a more serious offence, what happened?
Transferred to assizes for trial by judge and jury.
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Who supervised JPs and how?
The Council. Compiled lists for each county of those granted King's commission and in theory removed the names of those inadequate.
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What was the function of JPs?
Both judicial and administrative, number of special commissions appointed for e.g. sewers
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What were the reasons for the considerable variation in the arrangements in different regions?
1) Liberties and Franchises 2) Remote border lands where King's authority never sufficient to maintain peace and protect area from foreign invasion. Some case overlapped
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What happened in Liberties and Franchises?
Allowed private laws and law enforcement to operate alongside or in place of royal authority.
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What was the original intention for Liberties and Franchises and what actually happened?
Originally helped control difficult areas but also acted as barrier to royal authority and consistent application of the law.
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What had happened pre-1536 regarding attempts to strengthen the Regional Councils in Wales?
Efforts to strengthen without great success
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What had happened pre-1536 regarding attempts to strengthen the Regional Councils in the North?
Efforts to extend control by appointing Earls of Cumberland and Westmorland to work alongside Percy s and Dacres in 1525 met with such resistance forced to back down
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What did Cromwell intend to do?
Extend royal authority into the wilder and remoter parts of the kingdom.
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Was Cromwell succesful in centralisation?
Limited success - had to depend on unpaid co-operation of local gentry as JPs and on willingness of noble landowners and of clerics who filled offices of president on regional Councils of North, West and Wales
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What shows how precarious the position in the localities was?
Some gentry and nobility joined the Pilgrimage of Grace.
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What happened regarding centralisation in the years 1536 to 1553?
System evolved and expanded but did not require substantive reform..
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What were the most significant centralisation changes in 1536-53?
In the extent to which system and royal authority it represented operated across country
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What happened in 1537?
Council of North with Bishop of Durham responsible for supervising Church and State in North
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What was the role of the Bishop of Durham and the Council of the North (1537)?
Monitored JPs, local government, the Court of Equity and ensured northern Bishops monitored religious policies.
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What was the Court of Equity?
Law court based in York
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What did Cromwell do from early 1536 regarding centralisation?
Took steps to establish a uniform system of law and admnistration
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What did an Act of Parliament allow the Crown to do regarding Liberties and Franchises?
Resume control and deprive their Lords of jurisdiction in criminal case with, in future, only the Crown appointing judgse adn justices
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What was gradually taken under royal control?
Welsh marches, patchwork of local lordships.
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What was passed in 1536?
Acte for Laws & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme
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What did the 1536 Act for Laws and Justice do?
Extend English legal system into Wales and provide the Welsh with right to appoint MPs
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Who became President of the Welsh Council in 1534 and what did he hope to do?
Rowland Lee, Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry. Hoped to end lawlessness in marches by hanging felons.
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How many felons did Lee hang in his first six years as President of the Welsh Council?
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What was passed in 1543 regarding centralisation?
Second Act of Union
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What did the Second Act of Union actually do?
Divide Wales into counties and established Sheriffs and JPs throughout country. Also at this timethe Regional Council reorganised to direct and supervise government in Wales and nearby counties.
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What was the Council of Wales' role?
Publish royal proclamations and transmitted orders in translation where needed. Continued to act as preorgative court of equity similar to Star Chamber and Court of Requests in London.
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How can the success of centralisation measures in Wales be seen?
The lack of unrest and resistance and unrest in Wales throughout the Tudor century?
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Before Cromwell. What was Dacre accused of in 1534 and what happened?
Accused of treason and though acquitted was dismissed and fined because of Scottish contacts. Had role in the North.
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At Cromwell's suggestion what was done to the childless, ill Earl of Northumberland in 1536?
Government took over debts and forced him to name King as heir.
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What was the intention when government took over Henry Percy's debts?
To gain control of the Percy estates covering areas of Northumberland, Durham and N.Yorkshire as well as parts of the East and West ridings.
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Where else had the process used against the Earl of Northumberland also been used?
To take over the Welsh marcher lordships
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Did the process with Percy's lands contribute to the Pilgrimage of Grace?
Almost certainly! Created fury. Both his brothers and many tenants, agents and dependent gentry took part.
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What happened in 1537?
Henry Percy died and the Percy estates reverted to the Crown.
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What did the reversion of Percy estates to the Crown provided an opportunity for?
Reorganisation of local government in the North
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When was Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, appointed Lord President of the Council of the North?
In autumn of 1537.
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What did Peter Servini say about the state of the North after 1537?
"no longer to be governed by a great magnate assisted by a council, but by a permanent bureaucratic council."
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Where was the new Council in the North made the superme executive authority for?
All counties north of the River Trent aside from the Duchy of Lancaster
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Was the Earldom of Northumberland now defunct?
Yes. It was deaded.
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What was happening to the old Liberties by 1537?
Being incorporated into the shires, although Palatinate of Durham retained minor privileges.
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What was the important role of the Council of the Nort under Cromwell?
Responsible for supervising local government (Church and State) and became very active.
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What efforts were made in the North after the Pilgrimage of Grace?
Efforts made to address some of economic and social issues such as enclosure and rights of tenure that had contribute to cause the Pilgrimage of Grace
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Did resentment of change in the North vanish with the new actions?
No, further attempt at rebellion with the Wakefield Plot (1541)
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What was the Wakefield Plot?
A small group of conservative gentry and clergy in Wakefield planned to murder Archbishop Holgate, President of Council of North and seize Pontefract Castle.
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What happened to the conspirators of the Wakefield PLot?
Failed to gain popular support. Rounded up. Around 15 executed and another 50 fined or imprisoned.
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After the Wakefield Plot when did the North remain quiet until?
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What is a sign of the success of the Council of the North?
When widespread unrest in 1549 the north was remarkably quiet and when northern magnates attempted rebellion against Elizabeth I in 1568-9 there was little popular support.
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Card 2


According to David Loades, did the role of the Court of Chancery change much?


It remained largely unchanged and writs "continued to be essential for what might be termed the transmission of government."

Card 3


Who appointed royal office holders and what were they in charge of?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What were the main offices in 1536?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


In 1536, before Cromwell's role, in administration was there a clear line between government and household role?


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