The effects of labelling

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Who distinguishes between primary and secodary deviance?
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What is primary deviance?
This refers to deviant acts that are not publically labelled as deviant.
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Why does Lemert argue that it is pointless to seek the cause of primary deviance?
It is very widespread so it is unlikey to have a singular cause and is trivial in most cases.
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For example:
Fare dodging.
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How can primary deviance easily rationalise their behaviour?
Primary deviance isn't part of an organised, deviant way of life.
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As a result of primary deviance not being part of a deviant way of life, they have little significance to...
...the individual's status or self concept.
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Primary deviants don't generally see themselves as...
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However, secondary deviance is the result of a...
...societal reaction.
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What can being caught and publically labelled as a criminal involve?
Being stigmatised/shamed/humiliated/excluded from normal society.
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Once an individual is labelled, others only come to see them ... terms of that label.
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What is this called?
A master status
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What can the creation of a master status provoke for the individual?
A crisis for the individual's self concept/sense of identity.
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What is one way to resolve this crisis?
For the individual to accept the deviant label and begin to see themselves in the way that society sees them.
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This may lead to individuals acting out/ living up to their deviant label. This is called a...
...self fuffiling prophecy.
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Lemert refers to the further deviance that results from a self-fufilling prophecy as...
...secondary deviance.
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What is a self fufilling prophecy likely to provoke?
More hostile reactions from society.
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Hostile reactions only further reinforce...
...their deviant master status.
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More and more deviant behaviour will result in a ...
...deviant career.
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For example:
An ex convict will not be able to live lawfully because no one will employ them so they may join a deviant subculture that offers deviant career oppourtunities and role models.
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Who uses the concepts of secondary deviance and deviant career in his study of hippy marijuana users in Notting Hill?
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At first, drug use in hippie subcultures was..
...peripheral (on edge of) to the lifestyle
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Is this primary or secondary deviance?
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Why was the drug use originally primary deviance?
It was not a part of an organised, deviant way of life and hippies didn't see themselves as deviant outsiders.
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How did the hippies begin to see themselves as outsiders?
Persecution that resulted in labelling by the control culture.
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As a result of being labelled, the hippies retreated into closed groups where they began to develop...
...delinquent subcultures.
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How did the drug use of the hippies transition from primary deviance to secondary deviance?
Drug use became a central activity and part of an organised, deviant way of life. It also created further attention from law enforcement/self-fufilling prophecy.
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Therefore, the social control processes that are meant to produce law-abiding citizens...
...end up producing the opposite.
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However, although a deviant career is a common outcome of labelling...
...labelling theorists point out that it is not inevitable.
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What did Downes and Rock argue?
We cannot predict whether someone who has been labelled will follow a deviant career because they are always free to choose not to deviate further.
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What does the phrase 'deviance amplification spiral,' mean?
It is a term used to describe a process in which the attempt to control deviance leads to an increase in the level of deviance.
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More and more control produces...
...more and more deviance.
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As is the case of...
...the hippies described by Young.
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What have labelling theorists applied the concept of the deviance amplification spiral to?
Various forms of group behaviour.
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What is an exampe of this?
Cohen's study of the societal reaction to the mods and rockers disturbances called: "Folk devils and moral panics."
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When/where did this disturbance take place?
At the seaside resort of Clacton in 1964.
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According to Cohen,what began a moral panic after this event?
Press exaggeration and distorted reports of the events causing public concern/moral entrepreneurs calling for a crack down.
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How did the police respond to this?
By arresting more youths and giving them harsher penalties.
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This confirmed...
...the truth of the original media reaction.
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This provoked...
.. an upward spiral of deviance amplification.
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The deviance amplification spiral is similar to that of...
...Lemert's idea of secondary deviance.
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In both cases, the societal reaction to an initial deviant act leads to...
...not the successful control of deviance but further deviance which leads to a greater reaction and so on.
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Lemert's quotation:
"labelling theories rest heavily on the idea that deviance leads to social control. I have come to believe that the reverse idea."
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Recent studies have shown how increases in the attempt to control and punish young offenders...
...are having the opposite effect.
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What did Triplett say?
In the USA, there is an increasing tendency to see young offenders as evil.
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People are also seen to be ...
...less tolerant of minor deviance.
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The criminal justice system has re-labelled status offences (such as truancy) ... more serious offences.
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This results in...
...harsher sentences.
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As predicted by Lemert's theory of crime and deviance...
...this has lead to an increase in crime rather than a decrease.
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This findings indicate that the labelling theory has important...
...policy implications.
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Labelling theorists argue that negative labelling by the criminal justice system pushes offenders towards...
...a deviant career.
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Therefore, to reduce deviance,we should avoid...
...publically naming and shaming offenders.
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Naming and shaming offenders is likely to create a perception of them as evil outsiders.
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By excluding offenders from mainstream society...
...we push them into more deviance.
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Most labelling theorists see labelling as having...
...negative effects.
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Who identifies a more positive role of the labelling process than other labelling theorists?
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What 2 types of negative labelling does he distinguish between?
Disintegrative shaming and reintegrative shaming.
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What is disintegrative shaming?
When both the crime and the criminal is labelled as bad and the offender is excluded from mainstream society.
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What is reintegrative shaming?
When the act is seen as bad but not the offender.
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What does reintegrative shaming encourage?
Other people to forgive the offender and accept them back into society.
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This avoids punishing the offender into...
...secondary deviance.
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Brainwaite argues that crime rates tend to be lower in societies where...
...reintegrative shaming rather than disintegrative shaming is the dominant way of dealing with offenders.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is primary deviance?


This refers to deviant acts that are not publically labelled as deviant.

Card 3


Why does Lemert argue that it is pointless to seek the cause of primary deviance?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


For example:


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How can primary deviance easily rationalise their behaviour?


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