The earths atmosphere, emulsions, tectonic plates, how life formed on earth

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What is crude oil made up of?
Long chain and short chain hydrocarbons.
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Describe crude oil.
Its dark, viscous, thick. Pure crude oil is not useful as it contains a lot of long chain hydrocarbons.
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What is combustion?
This is when you break down a substance in the presence of oxygen. Carbon dioxide and water is always formed.
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What is incomplete combustion and what is always released?
When there isn't enough oxygen and sulphur dioxide is released.
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What is fractional distillation?
Crude oil is heated, it evaporates, short chain HC rises to the cooler area at the top of the colomn and condenses based on its boiling point then vaporises, long chan HC stay at bottom
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what is the difference between alkanes and alkenes?
Alkanes are saturated and have single bonds and are unhealthy since it can pack more single bonds together alkenes are unsaturated and have double bonds and are healthier as it can pack less bonds.
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What are the 5 harmful gases...
CO2 (carbon dioxide) formed by burning fossil fuels and contributes to global warming, NO (nitric oxides) car engines release this when there is high temperature in combustion + triggers asthma. CO (carbon monoxide) > incomplete combustion+ poisonous
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What are the 5 harmful gases...
SO2 (Sulphur dioxide) by burning coal/hydrocarbons causes acid rain & particulates formed by burning fossil/wood and damages lungs
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What are the solutions to those gases?
Burn fossil fuels cleaner, use scrubbers and bio diesel.
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Name the advantages and disadvantages of bio diesel.
Advantages are its renewable, co2 neutral, more employment and its cheap. Disadvantages are its a long process, crops are being used for fuel rather than for food, and destruction of habitat.
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How do you crack hydrocarbons and why?
We need to crack them because they're unuseful. The process is called catalystic crackin, you heat LC HC in a vessel and it vaporises and you add zeolite catalyst to speed this process up then the HC are turnt into a gas and you do the process of FD.
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How do you test for alkanes/alkenes?
You add bromine water. If its clear then its an alkene if its red/purple its an alkane.
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Whats additional polymerisation?
when you break the double bond in the monomer and join the two momomers together.
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What are the processes to make ethanol?
Fermentation and Hydration. For fermentation you need high pressure and enzymes, its used in alcoholic drinks, nail polish remover + white spirit. Ad: co2 neutral, renewable, cheap. Dis: sugar for alcohol instead for food, habitats destroyed, long.
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What are the processes to make ethanol?
Hydration you need a catalyst to speed the reaction up and high pressure. This is when you add water to ethene. Ad: fast, no waste products. Dis: Expensive due to catalyst, and its non-renewable since it comes from crude oil (ethene)
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How do you extract vegetable oil?
Pressing is when the plant material is crushed and pressed which removes the water and forms a paste thats oil - virgin oil is made from this.
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How do you extract vegetable oil?
Distillation is when the plant material is added to a flask aswell as water and its heated and the plant material is broken down and the oil in the nuts and seeds release and evaporates and rises up and condenses in the tube. Cold water cools oil.
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Describe hydrogenation.
Unsaturated oils are liquid at room temperature and have a high melting point, the unsaturated oils are broken down into saturated oils and the double bond is taken away and you blast hydrogen to the bond, conditions = 60 degrees nikhil catalyst + H
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What is an emulsion?
The mixture of two different substances by using and emulsifier. Water and oil is an emulsion, fairy liquid and egg is and emulsifier.
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Whats the process of an emulsion?
The head = hydrophilic water loving, the tail = hydrophobic water hating. Tail faces oil droplets since it repells again water and the head faces the water as its attracted to the water. Like charges repel causing it to mix.
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Describe the earth.
Inner core > outer core > lower mantle > upper mantle > earth's crust.
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How do tectonic plates move?
R.A.D releases heat in the inner core -> outer core -> lower mantle. Lower mantle becomes less dense and rises up. As it rises up it becomes cooler and spreads out moving the tectonic plates. It becomes more dense and sinks - convection current
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What was Alfred Wegeners theory?
That all the continents in the world today was once joined together called the pangea.
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What was his evidence?
1. s.America and Africa both fit like a jigsaw puzzle. 2. Same sequence and thickness of rocks and sediment found on both S.America + Africa. 3. Fossils of land reptiles were found on each side of the ocean.
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What was the Miller and Urey experiment?
They wanted to find out how life on earth formed. They took a chronical flask and added amonia and left it for a week and nothing happened. They added a electrical spark enough energy to make the elements react together equivalent to lightning and a
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What was the Miller and Urey experiment?
week later and found a brown soup which contained 11 amino acids, this proved that life on earth couldve been formed. Some people said no cus there was no oxygen present.
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What was the theory of volcanic vents on sea beds?
A meteor fell from outer space onto Australia and contained 70 amino acids.
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What was the theory of volcanic vents on sea beds?
Since volcanoes have the right temperature to form life on earth and the volcanoes also release methane water nitrogen and hydrogen so it can be argued whether this formed life on earth.
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Describe the earths atmosphere.
Mostly hydrogen and helium, volcanoes release water vapour and CO2, water vapour condense to form oceans, photosynthesis by plants and algae produce oxygen, oxygen forms the ozone layer, levels of nitrogen in atmosphere increase, co2 release
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Describe the carbon cycle.
Plants photosynthesise taking co2 then they repsire giving co2 back, animals eat the plants taking co2 then they repisre giving it back, animals die decomposing taking co2 then fossils are burnt combustion occurs - giving co2 back.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe crude oil.

Back

Its dark, viscous, thick. Pure crude oil is not useful as it contains a lot of long chain hydrocarbons.

Card 3

Front

What is combustion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is incomplete combustion and what is always released?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is fractional distillation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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