the digestive system

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  • Created by: Jaderose
  • Created on: 08-05-14 17:59
what are the two different types of digestion
physical and chemical
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whats physical digestion with an example and why
food broken down by teeth in mouth and stomach muscles to make smaller pieces with a larger surface area which makes chemical digestion faster
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whats chemical digestion
breaking down polymers into more soluble molecules by adding water
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whats hydrolysis?
adding water to break a molecule
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what a condensation reaction?
when two molecules join together and release water
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why is the mouth used in the digestive system
its the start, teeth break down food tongue pushes food to oesophagus saliva secreted to lubricate throat has enzymes to start chemical digestion
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why is the oesaphagus used in the digestive system
tube to stomach using waves of muscle contractions called peristalsis
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why is the stomach used in the digestive system
folds to allow it to expand it can hold 4litres of food and liquid entrance and exit control by sphincter muscles produces gastric juice contain hcl and pepsin and mucus
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what are the two main parts of the small intestine
duodenum and ileum
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what happens duodenum
bile (alkaline) and pancreatic juice bind with chyme to neutralise it and break it into smaller molecules
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what happens in the ileum
the small soluble molecules eg glucose and amino acids are absorbed by villi by diffusion, active transport and facilitated diffusion
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what are villi
finger like projection that increase surface area for absorption
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why is the large intestine used in the digestive system
absorbs water, salts and minerals folded walls provides a large surface area for absorption bacteria that decompose some undigested nutrients are found here
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why is the rectum used in the digestive system
faeces and stored in the rectum and then pass through the sphincter muscles at the **** during defecation
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what two glands are involved in digestion
the salivary gland and the pancreas
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what does the salivary gland do
secrete saliva that consists of mucus, mineral salts and salivary amylase which breaks down starch into maltose and helps lubricate food
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what the role of the pancreas
releases pancreatic juice into the duodenum through pancreatic duct contains sodium hydrogen carbonate which neutralises the acidity of stomach acid
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what is in pancreatic juice
amylase trypsin chymotrypsin and lipase
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what is the primary protein structure
the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
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what is the secondary protein structure
hydrogen bonds form between amino acids automatically coils into alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
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what is the tertiary protein structure
coiled and folded even further different bonds form from different parts of the chain proteins made from a single chain this is their final 3D structure
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what is the quarternary protein structure
several different polypeptide chains held by bonds way the chains are held together final 3d shape
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what's the structure of enzymes
spherical in shape due to tight folding of the polypeptide chains, soluble roles in metabolism
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what's the structure of antibodies
involved in immune response two light polypeptide chains and two heavy and variable regions
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what's the structure of transport proteins
contain hydrophilic and hydrophobic antibodies which cause the protein to fold up and open a channel
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what's the structure of structural enzymes
physically strong long polypeptide chains lying parallel to one another with cross links include keratin
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explain the biuret test and why its used
to test to see if a sample contain proteins 1.add a few drops of sodium hydroxide then add copper(II) sulphate if a protein is present the solution turns purple if not it will stay blue
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what bond is formed when two monosaccarides join in a condensation reaction to form a disaccharide
glycosidic bond
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what hydrolyses maltose and in to what?
maltase and glucose+glucose
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what hydrolyses sucrose and in to what?
sucrase and glucose+fructose
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what hydrolyses lactose and in to what?
lactose and glucose+galactose
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whats starch made up of and what breaks it down and into what
amylose and amylopectin makes starch broken down into maltose
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whats the test for starch
potassium iodide if starch is present the colour changes from browny orange to dark blue-black
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what do enzymes do in a reaction
lower activation energy making reactions happen at a lower temperatures this speed up rate of reaction
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what is activation energy
the amount of energy needed before the reaction start lowered by the enzyme substrate complex
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whats it called when a substrate fits in to an enzymes active site
enzyme substrate complex
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how does an enzyme break lower activation energy
if two substrate molecules need to be joined being attached to an enzyme holds them closer so they can bond easier. if its breaking down a reaction puts a strain on bonds so the substrate breaks up easily
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describe the lock and key model
where the substrate fits into the enzyme in the same way a key fits in a lock complementary shape
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what was wrong with the lock and key model
new evidence showed the enzyme-substrate complex changes shape slightly to complete the fit
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explain the induced fit model
helps explain why enzymes are so specific the substrate doesn't only have to be the right shape to fit the active site it has to make the active site change shape in the right way
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what determines the shape of the active site
the sequence of amino acids
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what are the two ways to measure enzyme activity
measuring the amount of product produced and measure the amount of substance left
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explain measuring the product
measure the amount of product and different intervals throughout the experiment the rate of reaction can be calculated
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explain measuring the amount of substance left
to produce end products substrate molecules have to be used up by measuring the amount of substrate left at different times reaction rate can be calculated
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what happens if the temperature increases too much in an enzyme reactio
the enzymes vibrates too much which breaks bonds and changes the active sites shapes and the substrate no longer fits and the enzyme is denatured
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whats an enzymes optimum temperature
37
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whats the enzymes optimu, ph and whats the exception what happens
ph7 pepsin and h+ and OH- interfere with the hydrogen bonds and denatures
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hows enzyme activity prevented
enzyme inhibitor
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whats an enzyme inhibitor
molecule that bonds to the enzyme they inhibit
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what are the two types of inhibitor
competitive and non competitive
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

whats physical digestion with an example and why

Back

food broken down by teeth in mouth and stomach muscles to make smaller pieces with a larger surface area which makes chemical digestion faster

Card 3

Front

whats chemical digestion

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

whats hydrolysis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what a condensation reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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