The Development Gap

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What are the 3 traditional methods for dividing up the world?
'Worlds', North/South, Level of Development
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Describe the 'Worlds' division method
World divided up from a European perspective. 1st-Europeans, 2nd-Wealthier regions colonised by europeans eg North America and Australia, 3rd-poorer countries, 4th-poorest countries
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Explain the problems of the 'Worlds' divison method
No clear place for communist countries eg Soviet Union, it is a view from the european perspective only
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Describe the North/South division method
A simple division of the world, contrasting economically wealthier industrialised countries with poorer and largely agricultural ones. Sometimes referred to as the Brandt Line
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Explain the problems of the North/South division method
Too simplistic, now seen as out of date
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Describe the level of development division method
Countries are classified as MEDCs or LEDCs
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Explain the problems of the level of development division method
Some LEDCs are growing more rapidly so a new category has been introduced (NICs), not everyone living in an MEDC is rich and not everyone living in an LEDC is poor
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Name the modern method used to divide up the world
Wealth Division
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Describe the wealth division method
World divided up according to 5 different wealth categories, 1) Rich-industrialising eg UK, USA 2) Oil-exporting eg Nigeria 3)Newly-Industrialising eg China 4) Formally Centrally Planned Economies eg Romania 5)Heavily Indebted Poor eg many in Africa
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Explain the problem with the wealth division method
Some countries fit into more than one category
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What is meant by the term Quality of Life?
Includes standard of living and other things that aren't easy to measure eg how safe someone is and how nice their environment is
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What is meant by the term Standard of Living?
Someone's standard of living is their material wealth eg their income, whether they own a car etc
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How are quality of life and standard of living generally linked?
The higher a person's standard of living, the higher their quality of life
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Why might someone have a high standard of living but a poor quality of life?
They may live somewhere where there's lots of crime and pollution
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What is GNP?
Gross National Product- the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a year
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What is GNI?
Gross National Income- the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a year including money earned from overseas
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What does birth rate refer to?
The number of live births per 1000 per year
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What does death rate refer to?
The number of deaths per 1000 per year
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What is meant by infant mortality?
The number of babies that die under a year of age per 1000 live births
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What is meant by people per doctor?
Number of potential people per doctor
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What is meant by literacy rate?
Percentage of adults who can read and write sufficiently to function fully in work and society
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What is meant by access to safe water?
Percentage of population with access to safe water
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What is meant by life expectancy?
Average number of years a person is expected to live
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Name the 9 development indicators
GNP, GNI, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality, people per doctor, literacy rate, access to safe water, life expectancy
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What are the problems with using death rate as a single indicator to measure development?
Almost all countries have a low DR now, though DR is actually higher in rich countries due to their ageing populations
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What is the problem with using GNP/GNI as a single indicator to measure development?
Only considers how much money people earn not their overall standard of living, could be a few billionairs in a country which skews the average- not a true reflection
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What are the 3 Multi-Variable Development indicators?
Standard of living, Human Development Index, Physical Quality of Life
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What factors does HDI consider?
Income, education indicators, life expectancy
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What factor does Standard of Living consider?
Income and wealth eg GNI per head/average wage
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What factors does PQLI consider?
Life expectancy, literacy rate, infant mortality
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Why is trade in Africa made difficult?
Because many of its countries are landlocked
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How do economic factors cause global inequalities?
Trade imbalance as rich countries profit from exporting expensive goods and importing cheap raw materials, whereas poor countries are disadvantaged by buying expensive goods and exporting low-profit raw materials
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How do political factors cause global inequalities?
Wars, corruption and poor management of a country by its government widen the development gap
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What happened in Zimbabwe in terms of the effects of political factors causing global inequalities?
Government seized land owned by white farmers and gave it to the majority black population to try and reduce poverty, but they had little farming experience so crops failed, leading to an economy collapse
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How do social factors cause global inequalities?
1) Water quantity- The supply of water is unreliable in Africa and irrigation of crops is often impossible. 2)Water Quality- Tropical Africa suffers from malaria, yellow fever- people who are ill cannot work effectively-economy slows
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How do environmental factors cause global inequalities?
Poorer countries suffer natural hazards eg earthquakes/floods/volcanic eruptions because they don't have the money to prepare for and recover from these hazards
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What is WTO?
World Trade Organisation
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What is meant by the term 'trade balance'?
The difference between exports and imports
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What is a trading group?
When countries group together to increase the amount of trade between them
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How do poorer countries lose out because of trading groups?
They are excluded from the big trading groups
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What is a benefit of being in a trading group?
Tariffs are cut when trading within members of your group
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Name 2 big trading groups
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) and EU (European Union)
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Name 2 growing trading groups
SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) and AL (Arab League)
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What are tariffs?
Taxes paid on imports. This makes imported goods more expensive and less attractive to buyers than home-produced goods.
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What are quotas?
Precise limits on the quantity of goods that can be imported- usually restricted to primary goods like cocoa, tea and coffee- so they work against poor countries
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What is free trade?
When countries don't discourage or restrict the movement of goods with tariffs or quotas
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Describe 3 advantages of the UK being in the EU?
1) Guaranteed trade (buying and selling) 2) No tariffs on trade within the EU charged on our imports/exports 3) Biggest share of the World Trade
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Describe a disadvantage of the UK being in the EU
Trade is more expensive to any other group eg NAFTA
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Why are poor countries disadvantaged by the trading group system?
They are unable to export to other areas of the world where there is a large market
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What is fair trade?
A system whereby agricultural producers in countries at lesser stages of development are paid a fair price for their produce. This helps them to attain a reasonable standard of living.
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Name 5 fair trade products available in the UK?
Tea, coffee, cocoa, cotton, honey (Bananas, flowers, wine, chocolate)
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What is debt abolition?
When some or all of a country's debt is cancelled- meaning they can use the money they make to develop rather than pay back debt
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What is and who are the G8?
World's 8 most powerful and rich countries- Canada, Germany, USA, France, UK, Italy, Japan, Russia
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What is a conservation swap?
Where the country that is owed money (creditor) cancels part or all of the debt of the country that owes the money (debter) if the debter agrees to pay the money into conservation activities instead
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Name an example of a conservation swap
USA-Indonesia
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What is a donor/recipient?
Donor=the country that gives the aid. Recipient=the country that receives the aid.
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What is an NGO and give examples
Non-Governmental Organisation eg Oxfam or Unicef
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What is bilateral aid?
Where aid is given directly to the recipient
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What is multilateral aid?
Aid is given indirectly through an international organisation eg the United Nations who then distribute the aid
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What does it mean if bilateral aid is tied?
Means it's given with the condition that the recipient country has to buy the goods and services it needs from the donor country which helps the donor's economy
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What is short-term aid?
Money or resources that help recipient countries cope with emergencies eg floods, has an immediate impact- more people will survive the emergency
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What are 2 disadvantages of short-term aid?
The stage of development of the country remains unchanged overall, the recipient country may become reliant on aid
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What is long-term aid?
Money or resources that help recipient countries to develop
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Describe an advantage and disadvantage of long-term aid
A=Recipient countries become less reliant on foreign aid as they become more developed. D=Can take a while before the aid benefits a country
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What is the main advantage and disadvantage of aid for the donor country?
D=Costs them money or resources. A=Recipient countries become their political allies
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Why don't some recipient countries use aid effectively?
Because their governments are corrupt
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Describe 2 ways long-term aid is spent on development projects
1- constructing schools to improve literacy rates and hospitals to reduce mortality rates 2-building dams and wells to improve clean water supplies
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Name 3 ways international aid donors encourage sustainable development
1. Renewable energy 2. Education. 3. Reforestation
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What are top-down aid projects?
Large scale government projects across the whole country including healthcare and education improvements
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What are bottom-up projects?
Local people control the improvement of their lives and much of the work is done by NGO's but decided by local citizens and communities
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Explain an advantage and disadvantage on the Top-down donor
A=Aid is coordinated by governments or large international organisations-donor feels their money is being used effectively D=Large projects swallow up huge amounts of money-donors may not see the benefits of all their money
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Explain an advantage and disadvantage on the Top-down recipient
A=Large projects such as dams, power stations and railways improve the infrastructure of the whole country D=Most ordinary people don't benefit directly
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Explain an advantage and disadvantage on the Bottom-up donor
A=Being smaller scale there is a feeling of a direct link between donor and recipient eg sponsorship schemes D=The donor might not be able to target all the communities who are needing help
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Explain an advantage and disadvantage on the Bottom-up recipient
A=NGO's work with local community citizens who can make suggestions as to how the project is organised D=Donations to charity often reduce during times of economic recession in richer countries
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Name 3 political initiatives aimed at reducing global inequalities within the EU
1) The CAP: Common Agricultural Policy 2) EIB: European Investment Bank 3) Urband II Fund
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Briefly describe what each political initiative does within the EU
CAP=system of subsidies paid to EU farmers EIB=money spent on regional development and projects URBAN 2 FUND=for the sustainable development of troubled districts of European cities
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Card 2

Front

Describe the 'Worlds' division method

Back

World divided up from a European perspective. 1st-Europeans, 2nd-Wealthier regions colonised by europeans eg North America and Australia, 3rd-poorer countries, 4th-poorest countries

Card 3

Front

Explain the problems of the 'Worlds' divison method

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the North/South division method

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the problems of the North/South division method

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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