The d block: complex formation

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  • Created by: J.E.C.
  • Created on: 28-04-14 15:50
A complex consists of..?
A central metal atom or ion surrounded by a number of negatively charged ions or neutral molecules possessing a lone pair of electrons.
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The surrounding anions or molecules are called...?
Ligands
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If a complex is charged then it is a...?
Complex ion
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The charges on a complex ion are __ over the whole ion and bonding usually involves electron pairs from the __ being shared with the ___ __?
Delocalised. Ligand, central ion
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This means the ligands are ...?
Electron donors
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The coordination number is the..?
Number of bonds from the central ion to the ligands.
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Some four-coordinate complexes have a __ __ structure although they are more commonly tetrahedral?
Square planar
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Complexes with a coordination number of 2 are __ shape?
Linear
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The systematic naming of complex ions is partly based on the number of ligands, explain how?
Give the number of ligands of the same type around the cation using greek prefixes.
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The second rule for naming complexes involves identifying the ligand, explain how?
Identify the ligands in alphabetical order if more than one type, using the ending 'o' for anions. Exceptions neutral ligands keep name / aqua / ammine.
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The third rule for naming complexes involves the central metal ion, explain how?
Use the english name for a positively charged or neutral complex or the Latinised name if the overall charge of the complex is negative.
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The fourth rule for naming complexes involves the oxidation number, explain how?
Indicate the Oxidation number of the central metal ion in the square brackets
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Monodentate ligands are..?
Ligand molecules that can only bond to a metal ion through a single atom or ion.
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Ligand substitution occurs if...?
The new complex formed is more stable than the previous complex.
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The stability of a complex depends on...?
Its ligands
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The stability constant indicates...?
The relative stability of a complex
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The colour of transition metal compounds is often related to...?
The presence of unfilled or partly filled d orbitals in the metal ion.
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Light will only be absorbed by an atom if...?
The energy of the light matches the energy gap between two energy states in the atom.
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The frequency of light absorbed depends on the...?
Energy difference between the 2 energy levels.
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There are 5 d orbitals in d block metals, but the ligands around the metal ion cause these orbitals to...? Due to this the difference between the two levels is no such that the light absorbed..?
Split in such a way that some are slightly higher than others. Falls into the visible spectrum.
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The transmitted light is...?
The light not absorbed and the colour that we see.
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What 3 things does the colour of a transition metal complex depend on?
1. Number of d electrons 2.Arrangement of ligands around the ion - affects splitting fo d sub shell 3. Nature of the ligand - different ligands have a different effect on the relative energies of the d orbitals.
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Card 2

Front

The surrounding anions or molecules are called...?

Back

Ligands

Card 3

Front

If a complex is charged then it is a...?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The charges on a complex ion are __ over the whole ion and bonding usually involves electron pairs from the __ being shared with the ___ __?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

This means the ligands are ...?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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