The Cuban Missile Crisis

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  • Created by: Louise
  • Created on: 17-04-13 16:15
Where is Cuba?
Cuba is a large island below the USA, 160km from Florida.
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Who had ruled Cuba up until 1959?
Batista- a military dictator
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Who managed to overthrow the government after a two-year guerilla campaign in January 1959?
Fidel Castro, a Cuban Marxist revolutionary
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What did Castro do when he came to power?
Started to nationalise industry and agriculture.
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Why did this upset the Americans?
A lot of the industry (e.g. sugar mills) was owne by Americans
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What did Washington do in spring 1960 in order to put pressure on Castro?
They put limits on their sugar imports
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To whom did Castro turn to for help?
Kruschev (USSR)
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What did Kruschev agree to do?
Buy 1 million tonnes of sugar a year of Cuba
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What did the Americans then do in October 1960 because they were outraged at this?
They implemented a trade embargo
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How did castro respond to this trade embargo?
He nationalised all remaining US property in Cuba
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How did Washington retaliate in january 1961?
The USA broke off all diplomatic relations
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When was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
April 1961
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How many Cuban exiles invaded Cuba by sea in an attempt to remove Castro from power?
1400
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How had the Americans helped with this invasion?
Kennedy had supplied arms, equipment & transport. The exiles had been CIA trained
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By how many Cuban troops were the Cuban exiles met by when they landed at the bay of Pigs?
20,000
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What did these troops do?
Killed or captured all the exiles
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What did this do for public opinion of Castro?
His support soared & he announced that Cuba was now communist
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What about for Kennedy?
He was hugely embarrassed. kruschev was scornful of him and his new government.
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What else did Castro announce?
He announced the USSR was supplying Cuba with arms
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Why did Cuba's location and it being communist mean Kruschev agreed to defend it?
It was the only communist state in the west, it was very close to the USA, and it could have been a springboard for communist expansion into South America
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How did putting missiles on Cuba give Kruschev some bargaining leverage?
he could agree to remove them in return for the removal of American missiles placed in Turkey
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Why did Kruschev see putting missiles on Cuba as a test of strength for Kennedy?
Kennedy had looked hesitant and inexperienced at the Bay of Pigs. Kruschev expected him to back down if/when pushed.
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What happened on 16th October 1962?
Kennedy learnt missile silos were being on Cuba.
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When did JFK announce a naval blockade and warn of a 'full military response' to any misswile launch from Cuba?
22nd October 1962
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How many nuclear bombers were kept airborne at this time?
1 of 8 at all times, 24/7
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What did Kruschev claim on 23rd October?
That the missile sites were solely to defend Cuba
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What happened on 24th October?
20 Russian ships headed for Cuba with orders to ignore the blockade.
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What did Kruschev warn of (24/10/1962)?
A 'fitting reply' to any aggression.
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What happened on the 25th October?
The 1st Russian ship (an oil tanker) passed thorugh the blockade, and the rest turned around
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What did Kennedy know by the 26th October?
He knew that work on the missile bases was continuing.
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When did JFK get the 1st telegram from Kruschev?
6pm on the 26th October
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What did this 1st telegram say?
Kruschev was offering to dismantle the sites if JFK lifted the blockade abd didn't invade Cuba
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When did JFK receive a 2nd telegram?
11 am, 27th October 1962
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What did this telegram say?
It demanded Kennedy also dismantle his missiles in turkey
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When was a U2 plane shot down over Cuba?
12pm, 27th October
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What did kennedy do?
At 8.05pm JFK sent a message to Kruschev accepting the 1st offer publicly, and secretly agreeing to dismantle the US missiles in Turkey
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When did Kruschev agree to JFK's proposals?
28th October
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What the main consequences for Kruschev?
He won US recognition of Cuba's right to exist (embarrassing thorn in USA's side). He posed as a responsible peacemaker within the USSR, and he got rid of the missiles in Turkey
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What the main consequences for Kennedy?
Removal of Turkey missiles wasn't a great loss as the were obsolete anyway, + as the deal was kept secret Kruschev got no credit for it. JFK's reputation had been enhanced & he'd shown authority to US gov hardliners who'd wanted to invade Cuba
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What happened to Kruschev in 1964?
He was removed as a leader as he'd lost prestige
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What were the other consequences? 'Close shave, Mr Presdient!'
both leaders had been badly shaken by the experience of only just avoiding a nuclear war
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What were the other consequences? 'Hotline'
In 1963 a telephone hotline between Moscow and Washington was established in case of another crisis
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What was signed in 1963?
A Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
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What agreement was implemented in 1968 and what did it guarantee?
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In it, the superpowers prmised not to supply nuclear technology to other countries
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who had ruled Cuba up until 1959?

Back

Batista- a military dictator

Card 3

Front

Who managed to overthrow the government after a two-year guerilla campaign in January 1959?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Castro do when he came to power?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did this upset the Americans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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