The cosmological argument

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Define natural theology
An approach to understand and define God based on our natural world, as opposed to divine revelation. In the case of the cosmological argument, if God made the world then God is a creator
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What is an inductive argument?
An argument which indicates that something is correct, as opposed to one which conclusively and necessarily proves its conclusion
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Is the cosmological argument inductive, or deductive?
It is inductive as we only suppose that the premises will follow on from the conclusions
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How does Aristotle argue in favour of his "Primary Mover"?
Through Reducio Ad Absurbinism with the steps 1) the world follows the chain of cause and effect 2) If we remove the "first premise" this chain did not start thus 3) there must be an unmoved mover for the world to exist
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Briefly list Aquinas' three arguments from his "five ways" which form a cosmological argument.
Movement, Causation, Contingency
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Explain in further depth Aquinas' argument from movement
Every thing moves, which is neither self contained or regressive, indicating that there is a prime mover.
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Explain Aquinas' argument from causation
Everything has a cause, which isn't self contained or infinitely regressive, therefore there must be a First Cause.
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Explain Aquinas' argument from contingency
Everything is contingent, everything can not exist and in the past, has not existed, thus something must have brought this into existence
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Quote Al-Ghazali's cosmological argument:
"every being which begins has a cause for its beginning' now the world is a being which begins' therefore it possesses a cause for its beginning"
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What does Russell say about the cause of the universe?
"I should say that the universe is just there and that is all."
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What does Mackie propose in response to this?
The idea of infinite overlap, just because individual things are brought into existence and cease to exist at time does not automatically mean that at some time everything does not exist. The world could instead sustain itself.
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An alternative to the proposition that "causes are not self contained or infinitely regressive" is that...?
The world could simply be an infinite series, just because we have had no experience of an infinite series does not mean that it is impossible.
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Kant and Hume propose that...?
No statement about existence can be logically necessary.
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Describe another of Hume's criticisms of the cosmological argument?
We have no experience of worldmaking and therefore cannot make these statements
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Describe and detail Martin Lee's criticism of the cosmological argument.
God is either something or nothing. If God is something then God needs a cause, if God is nothing then this is incoherent, nothing cannot create the world. Therefore
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How would Aquinas (and some other theists) criticise Martin Lee's criticism?
God is in a category of his/her own.
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Card 2

Front

What is an inductive argument?

Back

An argument which indicates that something is correct, as opposed to one which conclusively and necessarily proves its conclusion

Card 3

Front

Is the cosmological argument inductive, or deductive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does Aristotle argue in favour of his "Primary Mover"?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Briefly list Aquinas' three arguments from his "five ways" which form a cosmological argument.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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