The Cold War- Unit 2

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Between 1949 and 961 how many East German refugees fled to the West?
Between 1949 and 1961 2.7million East German Refugees fled to the West.
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Why were East Germany's refugee problems known as the brain drain?
Many of the refugees fleeing East Germany were highly skilled workers resulting in an East German 'Brain Drain'.
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Why was Berlin the centre of the refugee problem?
Berlin was at the centre of the Refugee crisis as it was an easy way for East Germans to get to the West as it was in East Germany but half of Berlin was controlled by the West.
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When did Khrushchev issue his ultimatum? What was it?
Khrushchev issued his first ultimatum in November 1958. HE declared that the whole of BErlin belonged to East Germany and the ultimatum gave US troops 6 month to withdraw. Khrushchev's plan was to prevent East GErmans fleeing and to humiliate the USA
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When did the Geneva Summit take place? Was a solution to the issue of the USA's presence in Berlin reached?
The Geneva Summit took place in May 1959 representatives from the USA and USSR met at this summit (not the leaders themselves). No solution to the problem was reached but it laid ground work for Khrushchev and Eisenhower to talk face to face in the USA.
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When did Khrushchev and EIsenhower meet in Camp David? Was a solution to the problem agreed?
Khrushchev and Eisenhower met at a second summit meeting in Camp David in September 1959. No solution to the refugee problem was reached but it was decided a further summit meeting would be held and Khrushchev agreed to withdraw his 6 month ultimatum
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When did the Paris Summit take place? How did it go?
The Paris Summit took place in May 1960. It was a disaster as just before the conference the USSR shot down an American spy plane over Russia and captured the pilot. When Eisenhower refused to apologise Khrushchev walked out in protest.
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When did John F. Kennedy become the president of the USA?
In January 1961 John F. Kennedy became the president of the USA.
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When did the Vienna Conference take place? What happened?
In June 1961 John F. Kennedy met with Khrushchev in Vienna. Neither side were willing to back down over the US presence in Berlin. Khrushcehv saw Kennedy's inexperience as a a weakness and exploited it by issuing another 6 month ultimatum.
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What was Kennedy's response to Khrushchev's ultimatum?
Contrary to Khrushchev's belief's Kennedy refused to back down. He declared the the USA wouldn't remove troops from Berlin and prepared for war by increasing defence spending. A point of stalemate had been reached.
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By how much did Kennedy increase defence spending in retaliation to Khrushchev's ultimatum?
Kennedy committed the US government to an addition $3.2 billion of defence spending and spent an extra $207 million on building nuclear fallout shelters.
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In 1961 how many more nuclear weapons did the USA have in comparison to the USSR.
In 1961 the USA had 20 times more nuclear weapons than the USSR. Therefore Khrushchev knew the USSR could not win a nuclear war. Alos US weapons could reach the USSR whilst their weapons couldn't reach America.
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What was Khrushchev's reaction to Kennedy's refusal to back down?
Kennedy's refusal to back down called Khrushchev's bluff and he had to back down. He was unable to force the American's to leave by he still need to solve the refugee crisis.
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When was the Berlin wall built? What happened?
East German troops built a barbed wire fence around the whole of West Berlin on the night of the 12th August 1961. IN later months the fence was reinforced into a heavily guarded wall.
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When was there a day long stand off?
On the 27th October Soviet tanks were deployed to block Western access to the East. This caused a day long stand off with US tanks. After 18hour the tanks began to pull back. The crisis had passed.
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What was Kennedy's reaction to the Berlin Wall?
Kennedy said "It is not a very nice solution, but a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war'
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What was the impact of the Berlin Wall? Why was it significant?
The Berlin wall was significant as: it stopped East German's fleeing to the West so ended the refugee crisis, it allowed Khrushchev to avoid war with the US but still appear strong, it became a powerful symbol of the division of Germany and Europe.
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When did Kennedy visit Berlin?
Kennedy toured Berlin in 1963, he expressed feelings of solidarity with its people. Kennedy said "I take pride in the words Ich bin win Berliner" (I'm a Berliner). West Berlin had become a symbol of freedom.
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How many ICBM's did the USA have in comparison to the USSR in 1960?
The USA had 450 while the USSR had 76.
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What was Sputnik 1? When was it launched?
Sputnik 1 was the world's first man-made satellite, it was Russian and launched in 1957.
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Why did Khrushchev boast that Americans were sleeping under a red moon?
Khrushchev said that Americans were sleeping under a red moon because they launched the first satellite in 195 and even landed a robotic spacecraft on the moon by 1960. (USSR winning the Space race).
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Why did the USSR's success in the space race worry America?
America were worried by the USSR's space race success as it meant communism was winning and they believed rockets that were used to put satellites in space could be used to launch nuclear missiles at America. However, the USSR were not wealthy enough
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In Cuba what percentage of US companies ran the phone and electric supply in 1956?
In Cuba 90% of the phone and electric supply was ran by American companies in 1956.
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What year did the Cuban revolution take place? What happened?
The Cuban revolution took place in 1959 and overthrew Cuba's pro- American government. The new revolutionary regime was ran by Fidel Castro and wanted greater independence from the USA.
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What did Castro do as part of this new regime? How did America respond?
In July 1960 Castro's government nationalised all American property and companies that were located in Cuba. As a result the USA banned all trade with Cuba, which threatened to bankrupt the Cuban economy.
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What did the USSR do whilst the USA were refusing all trade with Cuba?
The USSR improved relations with Cuba by buying more sugar and provide more goods and loans to keep their economy at bay and help Cuba industrialise.
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When was the Bay of Pigs incident? What happened?
The Bay of Pigs: a Cuban-exile army of 1,400 invaded at the BAy of Pigs on the 17thh April 1961. However, the USA underestimated Castro and the exiles faced 20,000 of Castro's troops. Kennedy sent in planes but was too late, the exile were forced to surre
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What was the impact of the Bay of Pigs?
The Bay of Pigs officially ended any chance that USA and Cuba may negotiate a friendly relationship. Castro declared himself a communist and wanted military protection which the USSR were happy to provide.
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What did Khrushchev do to help Cuba protect itself?
In August 1961 Khrushchev decided to station nuclear weapons on Cuban soil, this would prevent America from invading but would also allow Russia to have nuclear missiles with in striking range of America for the first time.
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What were the Thirteen days?
The thirteen days was a period in 1962 at the heigh of the Cuban missile crisis where a nuclear war seemed likely.
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What happened on the 20th October 1962?
On 20th October 1962 Kennedy decided to impose a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent more missiles reaching it.
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What happened on the 22nd October 1962?
Kennedy gives a public address officially declaring the that the USA would not back down at the threat of war, he announced the blockade and called on Khrushchev to remove his ships.
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What happened on the 28th October 1962?
On the 28th October 1962 Khrushchev agrees to publicly removed his Cuban missiles and in turn the USA would secretly remove the missiles they had in Turkey. The crisis is over and Kennedy= the hero of the West and Khrushchev = weak
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DUring the crisis Kennedy and Khrushchev's advisers were split into Hawk's and Dove's. What did these labels symbolise?
The 'hawks' on both sides wanted an aggressive policy (some American generals believed a nuclear war was inevitable and therefore Kennedy should go to war as America were in the better position). 'Doves' advised caution and recommended diplomatic strategi
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What was the consequence of the Cuban missile crisis with regards to Khrushchev?
The Cuban missile crisis made Khrushchev seem weak. Because America's withdrawal of Turkish missiles remained a secret Khrushchev seemed to have backed down from America and Capitalism, and so Khrushchev's authority was reduced.
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As a result of the Cuban missile crisis, what was agreed y the superpowers?
Super powers agreed to: a hotline that was set up in June 1963, a direct communications link between Washington and Moscow,August 1963 the limited Test Ban Treaty was established,agreed to ban testing of n. weapons in space, sea and above ground.
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Card 2

Front

Why were East Germany's refugee problems known as the brain drain?

Back

Many of the refugees fleeing East Germany were highly skilled workers resulting in an East German 'Brain Drain'.

Card 3

Front

Why was Berlin the centre of the refugee problem?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did Khrushchev issue his ultimatum? What was it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When did the Geneva Summit take place? Was a solution to the issue of the USA's presence in Berlin reached?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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