The Cold war -Unit 1 cont.

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When was the Potsdam conference?
The Potsdam conference took place in July and Augus 1945
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Why were tensions higher in Potsdam than in Yalta and Tehran?
Tensions were higher in Potsdam as there was a change in leaders: Roosevelt died and so was replaced by Truman and Clement Attlee replaced Churchill. USA began testing the A bomb without informing the USSR. And Germany were defeated- no common enemy.
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What was agreed at Potsdam?
Mostly the same as at the other conferences as well as: A council of Foreign Ministers= set up to organise the re-building of Europe, divide Germany into 4 zones, divide Berlin into 4 zones, give the USSR 25% of the industrial equipment from the othe
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What were the four main points for disagreement at Potsdam?
The four main points of disagreement were: Reparations, The atomic bomb, Poland and Greece.
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Why were there disagreements in Potsdam over Reparations?
The USSR wanted to impose heavy reparations (which would make communism more attractive), the USA wanted Germany to be rebuilt (makes capitalism more attractive).
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Why were there disagreements in Potsdam over the atomic bomb?
Truman attempted to assert his authority in the meeting as he felt he had the ultimate weapon, it gave America the power to destroy whole cities without hurting a single American and therefore it was a threat to the uSSR.
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Why was Poland a point for disagreement at Potsdam?
Stalin had agreed to set up a polish government made of both communists and capitalists however by Potsdam it was clear he'd broken his word.
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Why was Greece an issue at Potsda,?
1944-Germans retreated from Greece. Left two groups fighting to rule the county: monarchists and communists. 1945: GB troops sent in to support the monarchists, USSR complained to the UN and a civil war erupted. 1947- GB pulled out & US stepped in.
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What were the Secret telegrams?
Truman and Stalin were concerned about the break down of the Grand alliance and the threat of a war. Both men asked for secret reports from their embassies, these reports were sent as telegrams.
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What was the 1946 Long Telegram?
'Long Telegram was a report to Truman. It said: Stalin gave a speech calling for the destruction of capitalism, could be no peace with the USSR while it opposed capitalism, USSR was building up its military powers, USA should try to contain communism.
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What was Novikov's Telegram?
1946 Stalin received this teleran. IT said: USA desired to dominate the world, after FDR's death the USA no longer wanted to co-operate with the USSR, the American public was being prepared for wear with the USSR.
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The Truman Doctrine was a reaction to the belief that the USSR were trying to spread communism. What did it state?
Stated: the world had a choice between communist tyranny & democratic freedom,USA had a responsibility to fight for liberty where threatened, USA would send military& economic help to governments threatened by communists, communism shouldn't grow.
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Why was the Truman Doctrine significant?
The Truman Doctrine= significant as: it suggested the USA not the UN had a responsibility to protect the world.= Reversal of the isolationism policy. Divided the world by ideology. No more East- West co-operation, marked the end of the Grand alliance.
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What was the Marshall PLan?
The 1947 Marshall PLan was the second half of the idea of containment (of communism). First= Truman Doctrine- containment through military force. Second the MArshall Plan- containment through economic aid.
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How did the 1947 Marshall plan aim to stop the spread of communism?
Marshall Plan committed $13 billion of American money to rebuild shattered economies. Encouraging prosperity= weakening the attraction to communism. To qualify for US money countries had to trade freely with the USA= helped US economy.
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How many countries welcomed Marshall aid?
16 countries including Britain and France welcomed the offer of Marshall aid.
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What was the USSR's reaction to Marshall aid?
USSR representatives walked out of 1948 Paris conference held to discuss Marshal Plan. Said it's 1st step to creating a military alliance that would wage war on the USSR and split Europe into 2 camps. Insisted countries in Soviet Sphere declined it.
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Why did Stalin set up Satellite states?
Stalin set up satellite states to extend his control and spread communism in order to have buffer zones and prevent the USA gaining too much power.
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How did the USSR keep control of satellite states?
The USSR kept control by ensuring that each communist party had leaders that would obey Moscow, creating an atmosphere of fear and mistrust, ruthlessly using police and army to take down opposition, arranging economies so they'd depend on the USSR.
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In what year did Yugoslavia split from the USSR and become indecent?
In 1948 Tito wanted to run Yugoslavia alone and split from the USSR in 1948 and even took aid under the Marshall Plan.
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What was Cominform?
Cominform (The Communist Information Bureau) established-1947. Organisation representing communist parties across EU. Ensured loyalty of Eastern Eu governments. Removed those not loyal to Stalin e.g Hungary 5% of the population were in prison by 1953
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What was Comecon?
Comecon (The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) 1949. Stalin's response to the Marshall Plan. By 1950 9 countries were involved. Aimed to: minimise US influence in Eastern Europe, ensured benefits of economic recovery remained in the Soviet Sphere
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After the Second World War the USA and USSR were unable to agree on the future of Germany. What were the four key issues?
THe four key issues= should it be in the USA's of USSR's sphere of influence or should it be neutral, Should a reunited Germany have a communist or capitalist government, should Germany receive Marshall aid, Should US and Soviet troops remain in Ger
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Why did Stalin believe the West were taking steps to creating a permanently divided Germany?
Stalin believed the West were taking step to creating a permanently divided Germany as Britain, the USA and France decided to form Trizonia and introduced a new currency, the Deutschmark, which became Trizonia's official currency.
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Why did Stalin oppose the permanent division of Germany?
Stalin opposed the division of Germany as he was reluctant to allow USA to have more control over Germany, didn't want US troops to stay in Germany, realised Germany's most valuable economic resources were in the west (could be used against USSR)
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When did the Berlin Blockade take place?
The blockade began in June 1948 and lasted until May 1949.
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Why did Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin in June 1948?
Stalin set up the blockade to cut western Germany of from Berlin so the new government (based in Berlin) couldn't control its territory in western Germany. He hoped to prove that a divided Germany wouldn't work.
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What was President Truman's response to the Berlin Blockade?
President Truman responded to the blockade with the Berlin Airlift. Allied planes transported supplies to West Berlin around the clock.
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Initially how many cargo planes did America commit to the Berlin airlift, how many supplies did they transport everyday? By how much did this increase?
Initially USA commited 70 large cargo planes and airlifted between 600 and 700 tonnes of supplies every day. Within a couple of weeks this had increased to 1000 tonnes a day.
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At its peak how many supplies did the airlift provide to West Germany?
At its peak, the airlift provided over 170,000 tonnes of supplies during January 1949.
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When was West Germany officially created as an independent state?
September 1949 West Germany became an independent state and was officially known as Federal Republic of Germany. A month later the USSR made a 2nd independent state officially known as the German Democratic Republic & became a Soviet Satellite State.
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When was NATO established? Why was it established?
NATO was established in 1949, it was an alliance between Western European nations to keep the USA in and USSR out . NATO members agreed that if any NATO country came under attack all the members of NATO would come to their defence.
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Initially how many countries were members of NATO?
Initially there were 12 countries including Britain, USA and Canada.
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When was the Warsaw pack established? How many countries made up the alliance?
The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955, there were 8 countries in the alliance.
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By what year did both the USA and USSR have hydrogen bombes?
By 1953 both superpowers had hydrogen bombs.
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By what year had the USA developed the B52 Stratofortress? What was it?
The B52 Stratofortress was developed by the USA by 1955. It was an aeroplane with long-range flight capacity to bomb the Soviet Union. At the same time the USSR was developing a similar aircraft: the TU20 Bear.
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WHy was the arms race significant?
The USSR had 3million troops and therefore easily could capture West Germany but they would never order an invasion as they feared an American nuclear retaliation.
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Who was Matyas Rakosi?
Rakosi was Hungary's dictator from 1949 to 1956.
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What tactics did Rakosi develop to get rid of opposition?
Rakosi developed 'salami tactics' for dealing with opponents slice by slice- he got rid of opposition by dividing it bit by bit,
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Why was Rakosi disliked?
He had a very hardline and oppressive communist regime. His oppressive regime imprisoned 387,000 and was responsible for over 2,000 deaths.
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In what year did Stalin die? Who took over as Russia's new leader?
Stalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev took over as the leader of the SOviet Union.
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In what year did Khrushchev give his secret speech? What did the speech promise?
In 1956 Khrushchev gave the Secret Speech, in it he promised what became known as de-stalniatsion throughout the Soviet Sphere of influence.
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Why were the people of Hungary unhappy?
Unhappy due to: brutality of Rakosi, Seceret speech gave them hope for reform but nothing happened. On 23rd October 1956 bad harvest and fuel and bread shortages led to riots. Students demonstrated in Parliament Square against the gov. and called for refo
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Why did Khrushchev make Imre Nagy the prime minister of Hungary?
Khrushchev agreed to make Nagy Prime Minister and to withdraw the red army from Hungary in order to stop the riots and calm the situation (Nagy was a popular leader)
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When did Nagy announce his reforms? What did they include?
Nagy announced his proposed reforms on 31st October 1956, included leaving the Warsaw Pact and holding free elections. They hoped to be supported by UN & USA. UN tried to help but the USSR took no notice & USA send military aid as they wanted to avoid a
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How did Khrushchev respond to these reforms?
Khrushceve believed the reforms were unavailable and that Nagy was trying to break from communist control. He believed if Hungary left the Warsaw Pact other countries would follow as he knew there was widespread discontent with communism, so he invaded
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Why did Khrushchev invade Hungary?
To show other countries that they would not be able to break free from communism (to prevent the collapse of Soviet dominance in Eastern Europed), to support Kadar's government (Nagy's reforms caused the government split & Kadar set up a rival gov.
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What happened during the Soviet invasion of Hungary? When was it?
On the 4th November 1956, 200,000 Soviet troops and 1000 tanks entered Hungary. 2,5000 people were killed and 20,000 wounded by Soviet troops, 2000,000 fled to the West and 650 Soviet troops were killed and 1,250 wounded.
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How did Khrushchev treat Nagy's execution?
Khrushchev treated Nagy execution as a lesson to the leaders of all socialist countries.
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What was the international reaction to the Hungarian uprising?
Following the arrest of Nagy USA offered Hungary food and medical aid worth $20 million and allowed 80,000 Hungarian refugees to move to the USA. Radicals in Eastern Europe were discouraged by Hungary's example as the West didn't help.
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Card 2

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Why were tensions higher in Potsdam than in Yalta and Tehran?

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Tensions were higher in Potsdam as there was a change in leaders: Roosevelt died and so was replaced by Truman and Clement Attlee replaced Churchill. USA began testing the A bomb without informing the USSR. And Germany were defeated- no common enemy.

Card 3

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What was agreed at Potsdam?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the four main points for disagreement at Potsdam?

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Card 5

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Why were there disagreements in Potsdam over Reparations?

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