The Coastal Zone

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  • Created by: Carolyn
  • Created on: 13-04-14 13:57
Name the five processes of transportation
Longshore drift, traction, saltation, suspension and solution.
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Large, heavy particles are pushed along the sea bed by the force of water.
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Pebble-sized particles are bounced along the sea bed by the force of water.
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Small, lighter particles like silt and clay are carried along in the water.
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Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along.
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Mass movement
The shifting of vegetation, soil or rocks down a slope when the force of gravity is greater than the force supporting it.
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Name the four types of mass movement
Rockfalls, landslides, mudflows and rotational slips.
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Fragments of rock break away from the cliff face, often due to freeze thaw weathering.
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Blocks of rock slide downhill.
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Saturated soil and weak rock flows down a slope.
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Rotational slips
Slump of saturated soil and weak rock along a curved surface.
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A slump of saturated soil and weak rock rock down a slope or along a curved surface.
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Blocks of rock slide downhill along a slide plane.
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Name the five processes of coastal erosion
Hydraulic power, corrasion, abrasion, solution and attrition.
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Hydraulic power
Waves crash against rock and compress the air in the cracks - this puts pressure on the rock. Repeated compression widens the cracks and makes bits of rock break off.
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Fragments of rock are picked up and hurled by the sea at a cliff. The rocks act like erosive tools by scraping and gouging the rock.
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Eroded particles in the water grinde over a rocky platform causing it to become smooth.
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Some rocks are vunerable to being dissolved by seawater, such as chalk and limestone.
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Eroded particles in the water smash into each other and break into smaller fragments. Their edges get rounded as they rub together.
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The narrow zone where the land and the sea overlap. It is known as a transient zone (constantly changing).
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The accumulation of sediment gathered up on a coastline.
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Constructive waves
Smaller amplitude; strong swash - pushing material up the beach; weak backwash - little erosion; sediment moved up the beach; wave crests are well spaced apart; builds beach by adding sediment.
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Destructive waves
Larger amplitude; weak swash - little beach-building; strong backwash - scours the beach pulling sediment down the beach; wave crests are closely spaced and often interfere with each other; removes sediment and destructs beach.
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The distance of open water over which winds can blow to create waves. In the UK, the largest fetch is from south-west, with no land mass between Cornwall and Brazil.
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The disintegration or decay of rocks in their original place at or close to the ground surface.
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Name the three main types of weathering
Mechanical (physical), chemical and biological.
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Small ridges coinciding with high-tide lines and storm tides. Some beaches may have several berms, each representing a different high-tide level.
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Pioneer plant
The first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment.
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Large, heavy particles are pushed along the sea bed by the force of water.

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