The Civil War

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Did more Russian people die in the Russian Civil War or the World War?
The Civil War
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Who were the reds?
They were the supporters of Lenin
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Who were the whites?
The anti-communists that wanted a return to Tsarism
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Who were the greens?
A peasant army
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What did the greens want?
A radical alternative to communism, they wanted all political and economic power to be handed to local groups of peasants
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Give an example of a nationalist group
The Poles, Finns, Ukrainians or Georgians
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What did the nationalists want?
Independence from Russia
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Who were the greens fighting?
The Whites and the Reds
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Who were the foreign troops?
Countries that sent troops to Russia to fight alongside the whites
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Name some of the foreign troops
Britain, France, Japan and the USA
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What did all of the groups have in common?
A desire to remove Lenin from power
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What was a problem of the Whites?
They were a loose collective group ranging from monarchists to liberals and so were not united. Their generals launched attacks at different times which allowed the reds to stop them one by one and they were geographically dispersed
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Who were the whites origionally led by?
General Kornilov
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What happened to Kornilov in April 1918?
He died
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What was the rough number of whites?
19,000
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Where were the whites based?
In the South, near Petrograd
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What did General Yudenich do?
Amassed a force in order to retake Petrograd
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What did Lenin do in response to General Yudenich?
Moved the capital to Moscow fearing attacks from the German's and the White's
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What did the White's do in Siberia?
Established their own government
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Why did the allies send troops to Russia?
In a bid to keep them in WW1 as the whites supported the continuation of the war.
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Where did the British send forces to?
The north of Russia
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Where did the French occupy?
Odessa on the Black Sea
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Where did the Japanese occupy?
Vladivostok on the Pacific ocean
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What did the allies see communism as?
A threat to their own stability of government
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What was created in 1917 from the First World War?
The Czech Legion
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Who were the Czech legion?
Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war of Czech and Solvak origin that wanted to create a nation state
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How many troops did the Czech legion have?
40,000
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What did the Czech legion try to do?
Move westward to fight against Germany
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What happened to the Czech legion?
As it moved westward it came into conflict with Red troops
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What happened to the Tsar and his family and why?
They were executed as the Bolsheviks feared that they would fall into the hands of the Czech legion
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Who did the Left-SR's support prior to the war?
The reds and the communists
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What caused the split of the Social Revolutionary and communist coalition?
The treaty of Bresk-Litovsk
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What did the Left-SR's launch in June 1918?
An attack on communist government
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Did the Left-SR's manage to overthrow the communist government?
No, they were quashed by the communists
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What did Kolchak launch in east in 1919?
An assult
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What advantage did Kolchak have?
The support of 30,000 foregin troops
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How did the Reds quash Kolchak?
They launched a counter attack by conscripting civilians and persuading some of Kolchak's troops to change sides
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What did Yudenich's (whites) army lack?
Sufiecient men
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What did the failure of Kolchak's campaign cause?
A lack of support by the allies
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Who refused to help Yudenich and why?
The Finns as he refused to grant them independence if they were sucessful in their campaign
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What did Yudenich do?
Launched an attack on Petrograd
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Who won the battle for Petrograd?
The Reds
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Who led the defence of Petrograd?
Trotsky
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How did Trotsky win the battle for Petrograd?
By recruiting workers from Petrograd, rousing troops and by rounding up retreating troops and leading them back to battle
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What did the Czech legion and foreign powers do by the end of 1919?
Withdrew their troops
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How did the Poles exploit the situation in Russia?
They invaded Ukraine and captured Kiev
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What did the communists do in response the Polish invasion of Ukraine?
They forced the Poles to retreat
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Why did Lenin invade Poland?
To try and prompt a worldwide revolution
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What had Lenin hoped?
That Polish workers would join the red armies and stage a revolution against their government
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How did the Polish workers view the reds?
As a foreign agressor
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What ended the Russo-Polish war?
The treaty of Riga
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What was the biggest defeat of the Russian Civil War?
The loss against Poland
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Who won the Civil War?
The Reds
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What were the factors leading to the Reds winning the Civil War?
The disunity of opposition, Geographical and organisational factors, The terror and Trotsky and the Red Army
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What was an attribute of the communists?
They had a clear vision, were lead by a strong leader and were determined
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What did the Russian people not want?
A return to tsarism
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Where was the most important areas of Russia, why and who controlled them?
The major cities as they had a population of around 60 million and they had the major railways. These were controlled by the Reds
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Who did the white armies rely on?
Foreign support
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What were the advantages of the front that the Reds held?
The railways meant that there was better communications and that armaments could be sent quickly troops and they controlled the armaments factories
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What did the Bolsheviks do to the economy which contributed to their victory?
Created war communism
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What did Lenin create during the civil war to stop opposition?
The Cheka
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What was the Cheka?
A political police force that engaged in terror tactics against all enemies of the communists
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Who faced terror tactics?
Anyone who opposed the communists in any way
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What happened to peasants who tried to oppose grain requisitioning?
They were executed
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What happened to villages thought to be hiding political opponents?
They were burned
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What were many civilians offered the choice of?
Either joining the red army or being executed
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What did Trotsky create in 1918?
The Red Army
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By the end of the civil war, how many members of the Red Army was there?
5 million- most conscripted
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What did the Bolsheviks lack?
Military leaders
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What did Trotsky controversially do to encourage the success of the red army?
Recruited ex-tsarist officers to control the army
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How did Trotsky prevent the disloyalty of these officers?
He held their families hostage and assigned each of them a political officer who kept tight checks on them
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What did Trotsky do himself to contribute to the success of the Red Army?
He toured the troops in his armoured train and gave strong speeches.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who were the reds?

Back

They were the supporters of Lenin

Card 3

Front

Who were the whites?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who were the greens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the greens want?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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