The circulatory system- the heart

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There are three layers in the heart wall. name these and state what they are made of.
epicardium-visceral layer. myocardium- cardiac muscle layer. endocardium- innermost layer of tissue that lines the hear, valves.
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what is the pericardium made of?
Dense irregular connective tissue.
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state a few things about the cardiac muscle histology.
cells are branched, contain intercalated discs with gap junctions, are involuntary,striated and have a single nucleus per cell
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what are intercelated discs?
the area where the ends of the cells are connected to another cell. They contain gap junctions, adhering junctions and desmosomes
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what do gap junctions do?
they allow muscle cells to be electrically coupled.so they beat in synchrony
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what are the functions of desmosomes?
they allow the depolarization of adjacent fibers.They are a type of cell junction.
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what change causes the valves to open and close?
pressure changes
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Surrounding the values are dense connective rings which fuse and merge with the interventricular septum. state the funtion of the connective tissue
to support heart valves, insertion point for cardiac muscle bundles and an electrical insulator between atria and ventricles
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state the flow of electrical conductance.
1)SA-node 2)AV-node 3)Bundle of his 4) right and left bundles 5) purkinjie fibers
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where is the nervous control of the cardiovascular system located?
Medulla
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what does the sympathetic impulse do?
increases heart rate and force of contraction
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what does the parasympathetic impulse do?
decreases the heart rate.
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what is systemic circulation?
The flow of blood from the left side of the heart to the body and back
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What is hepatic portal circulation?
capillaries in GI tract to capillaries in liver
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pulmonary circulation?
right side of heart to lungs and back to heart.
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fetal circulation
fetal heart through umbilical cord to placenta and back
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What are the four main divisions of the aorta?
ascending aorta, arch of aorta, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the pericardium made of?

Back

Dense irregular connective tissue.

Card 3

Front

state a few things about the cardiac muscle histology.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are intercelated discs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what do gap junctions do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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