The Challenge of Global Hazards for the Future

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 26-04-15 19:58
1. What is causing rising numbers of hydro-metereological hazards?
Global warming and oscillations such as El Niño & La Niña. Also, the increasing num bers of vulnerable people, who have low adaptive capacity, mean that these hazards frequently develop into disasters.
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2. How many people currently experience water stress?
40% of the world's people.
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3. Why will half a billion more people experience a physical shortage of water?
As a result of rising temperatures, greater incidence of drought/ loss of supplies from glaciers. Demand will exceed supply.
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4. How will poverty levels rising affect this?
There may be more people not able to afford clean water, an economic shortage of water.
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5. How will water shortage affect food security?
Water is needed by people themselves but also for their rainfed agriculture and stock and therefore will have a profound effect on food security.
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6. What does food insecurity mean?
People's inability to access an adequate diet.
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7. How will climate change affect food insecurity?
Climate change will exacerbate famine in parts of Africa, South America and south Asia, as an increase in extreme weather events leads to falling yields in cereals. Also, the planting of millions of hectares of maize/soy beans/sugar cane for biofuels
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7. How will climate change affect food insecurity? [continued]
has been at the expense of growing cereals for food.
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8. How will rising poverty affect food insecurity?
Rising poverty means that fewer people will be able to afford to access food and more will rely on food aid.
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9. Why is the relationship between global warming and food security complex?
The growing of cash crops (e.g. tea) in some regions will be affected by changing conditions. However, elsewhere there will be some benefits, e.g. a longer growing season in the Arctic and more rainfall in Kenya.
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10. How will agriculture be able to adapt to climate change?
Using a variety of technologies, from intermediate technology like soil conservation schemes in Mali, to high technology such as a second-generation of drought-resistant GM crops. However, ecosystems are extremely sensitive, the vulnerability of
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10. How will agriculture be able to adapt to climate change? [continued]
people high and the adaptive capacity limited in the developing world.
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11. How is tree planting a sustainable strategy to tackling climate change?
Trees act as a 'sink' by taking in CO2 and 'fixing' it in the form of hydrocarbons. Yet, the benefits are not felt for 10 years since a growing tree releases more CO2 than it absorbs, especially if ground vegetation is burned to plant the trees.
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12. What are some small-scale renewable energy projects?
Solar panels, biogas converters, wind turbines and microhydro turbines. They cut down on the use of fossil fuels and are vitally important to remote areas in developing countries, revolutionising their quality of life.
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13. What are some of the benefits of large-scale schemes such as the Three Gorges dam in China?
They provide large quantities of 'green' electricity along with flood control, irrigation and tourism. Some countries depend on the HEP these schemes generate, but there are concerns that climate change will make HEP schemes
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13. What are some of the benefits of large-scale schemes such as the Three Gorges dam in China? [continued]
useless because of drought affecting water supplies.
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14. What are the two groups of first generation biofuels?
Biodiesel - usually made from soya beans/rapeseed which is added to conventional diesel. Bioethanol - is made from corn (USA) and sugar cane (Brazil).
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15. What are the concerns about growing biofuel crops?
There are huge concerns about the environmental damage and impacts on biodiversity resulting from destruction of rainforests/draining of wetland areas to grow these biofuel crops in countries such as Brazil or Indonesia.
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16. What effect do biofuels have on food-security?
the exacerbate the crisis where they are grown instead of food crops such as wheat or rice.
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17. Why is the USA so keen on producing biofuels?
Their main motivation is combating the rising price of oil rather than reducing GHG emissions.
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18. Why have some areas for the development of wind farms been opposed?
Although wind farms produce green electricity, they require large areas to generate modest amounts of power. Also, some of the best sites for wind are in areas of oustanding natural beauty.
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19. Give an example of a wind farm proposal that was rejected.
In the peatlands of the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides a proposal was rejected on environmental grounds, 11 000 residents signed a petition against it.
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20. What is a major problem regarding renewable sources of energy?
They tend to be more expensive than fossil fuels. Nuclear power is another option, but opinion is divided as to whether it is a green option because of waste and safety issues.
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21. Why do community-based strategies often work well?
They're developed in a 'bottom-up' fashion by the community, as opposed to being forced upon them by higher authorities. Communities in countries at all stages of development can begin in producing schemes that mitigate/adapt to climate change.
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22. What problems are there with community-based strategies?
They are often locally based and not easily replicated everywhere. Their success also depends on the energy of a '*********' of leaders and organisers to motivate the community.
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23. What are some examples of community-based schemes?
The creation of low carbon communities in towns and villages such as Wolvercote (Oxfordshire), and polythene-bag-free towns such as Modbury (Devon). In developing countries, there are numerous initiatives frequently financed by NGOs. They are known
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23. What are some examples of community-based schemes? [continued]
as capacity building schemes which teach local people to adapt to climate change. Community forest projects are also widespread.
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24. Why is energy efficiency thought to be the most effective way forward?
Although initial costs of any scheme are high, long-term energy efficiency not only reduces emissions but cuts costs and improves local pollution levels. Avoiding dirty development in the first place is the way ahead for developing countries.
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25. What are some methods of increasing energy efficiency?
Remodelled factories with clean, efficient industrial processes and optimum use of energy. Redesigned houses with modern boiler systems and full insulation. Greener & more effcient power stations. Green transport using new, greener fuels. Recycling.
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26. Why are China and India a threat to energy efficiency?
Their huge size (together, 1/3 of the world's population) and rapid economic growth (average 6-10%/year) means they have a critical role to play in controlling emissions.
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27. If all developed countries cut their emissions drastically, why could the economic growth of Chindia lead to more emissions?
China's GHG emissions growth 2000-2030 will almost equal the growth of the entire industrialised world. China became the world's biggest GHG emitter in 2008. India's GHG emissions estimated to rise 70% by 2025, with their energy consumption
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27. If all developed countries cut their emissions drastically, why could the economic growth of Chindia lead to more emissions? [continued]
rising faster than China's. Both are desperate for energy to fuel their economic expansion, in order to bring citizens out of poverty - 40% Indians lack regular access to electricity. Environmental concerns behind need for growth.
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28. What is the Hyogo Framework for Action (developed 2005)?
It aims for risk reduction by building resilience to disasters and overcoming the underlying factors that lead to vulnerability, mainly poverty.
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29. What is the aim of the Hyogo Framework for Action?
To exploit the Kyoto mechanisms, such as the Special Climate Change Fund, o allow developed countries to pay for GHG cutting projects in return for carbon credits.
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30. What are the three priorities for action of the Hyogo Framework for Action?
Integrate disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies & planning. Develop & strengthen institutions, mechanisms & capacities to build resilience to hazards.
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30. What are the three priorities for action of the Hyogo Framework for Action? [continued]
Incorporate risk-reduction approaches into emergency preparedness, response & recovery programmes.
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31. What are the five strategic goals of the Hyogo Framework for Action?
Reduce the underlying risk factors. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response. Identify, assess & monitor disaster risks & enhance early warning systems.
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31. What are the five strategic goals of the Hyogo Framework for Action? [continued]
Ensure that disaster risk reduction is an international, national & local priority. Use knowledge, innovation & education to build a culture of safety & resilience.
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32. Using an example, how can 31. What are the five strategic goals of the Hyogo Framework for Action be applied at an international level?
A mega-disaster like the boxing day tsunami 2004 has fulfilled the three frameworks for action by the new coastal zoning & coastal economic development schemes as well as the Indian-built tsunami early warning systems.
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33. What is an integrated approach to the management of the rising risk from climate change and hydro-meteorological hazards?
Using sustainable communities, disaster management & climate proofing and adaptation to all overlap and create the triple dividends.
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2. How many people currently experience water stress?

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40% of the world's people.

Card 3

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3. Why will half a billion more people experience a physical shortage of water?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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4. How will poverty levels rising affect this?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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5. How will water shortage affect food security?

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