What happened to the purpose of the Raj over time?
What was economic importance became political importance
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When was the EIC established?
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What was the purpose of the EIC?
To trade goods such as cotton, spices and tea
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Who else traded Indian goods?
The Portugese, French and Dutch
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What did the charter of the EIC mean for England?
It allowed a monopoly of trade in India and meant that EIC were debated in parliament and could refuse to renew the charter
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What did each of the EIC's trading station have?
It's own army
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What happened to the Mughal Empire?
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Who replaced the Mughal empire?
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Why did the EIC become political?
To protect its trading interests
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What happened between the French and English at this time?
They struggled for power and mini wars broke out
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Who was the first British Governor General of Bengal?
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What did the government of Britain do with the growing concerns over the power of the EIC?
Created a board of control
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What happened in the Great Rebellion of 1857?
Soldiers of the EIC army rebelled which was triggered by the use of pork and beef fat for the ammunition cartridges.
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What did the British do in response to the 1857 rebellion?
They were not understanding- they court marshalled 85 Indians and publicly humiliated them
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What did the Indians do in response to the British reaction to the rebellion?
They mutinied and this lead to a massacre of many British families living in India
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Did civilians participate in the rebellion of 1857?
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What did the rebellion of 1857 lead to?
Mistrust between the British and Indians
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What was passed as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
The Government of India act 1958
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What did the Government of India act 1958 do?
Transferred the rights of the EIC to the British crown
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What was Queen Victoria's title?
Empress of India
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When was the Raj at its height?
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Where were laws regarding India formed?
In the British Parliament
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In 1900 how was authority maintain?
Through the army
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Who had political control in India?
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Who had administrative control in India?
The Indian civil service
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What does viceroy mean?
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How many staff did the viceroy have?
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What was the secretary of state?
The person representing India in government as was responsible for the governance of India from Britain
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Who mainly made up the army in India?
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What was the ICS (Indian Civil Service) renowned for?
Efficiency and bureaucracy
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What were British states such as Bombay, Punjab and Madras run by?
Directly through the viceroy
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In the 1900's were there any states ruled by Indians?
Yes some few states were indirectly run by Indians
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What percentage of India was run by princely states?
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Did Britain ultimately still control the princely states and if so how?
Yes as they had treaty arrangements with the princes so princes cooperated with the Raj and recognised its control thus ultimately Britain controlled them
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What was a resident?
A viceroy's representative in the four largest and most important princely states
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What was a political officer?
A Viceroy's representative in smaller princely states
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What was the divide like between Indians and the British and why?
There was a large divide between the two nationalities due to suspicion from the British over the rebellion of 1857 and thus the middle classes distanced themselves
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What was the value of money like in India?
Money was worth more in India and went further so the middle classes lived a lavish lifestyle
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How did the middle class English distinguish themselves further from the Indians?
Built new towns and lived separately to them
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What was published to ensure that everyone knew their place?
A warrant of precedence
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What were typical sports india in the 1900's?
Croquet, polo and hunting which distanced them from normal society
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What happened to some British?
They married Indian women became missionaries and converted to an Indian way of life
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What did many British people such as viceroy Curzon?
In colonialism- that all white people are destined to rule the world
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In the 1900's did the Raj have much opposition?
No because it was thought that the Raj was at its height and couldn't be challenged
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By 1921 how many white people lived in India?
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Name things that the British brought to India?
Kerosene lamps, railways, piped drinking water and a postal service
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How many members were there of the ICS?
Just over 1000
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In the 1900's did the Indians consent to being ruled?
To a certain extent yes- they showed no opposition
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Where was the largest overseas market for Britain in the 19th century
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What was the aims of promoting agriculture and trade in Britain?
To help the British economy and to produce goods for the market
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What did the existence of the Raj ride on?
Whether it provided the British with power, money and influence
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What was the basis of most Indian's lifestyle?
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Why did the Indians grow produce?
For bartering purposes and for food
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By 1871 how many tea plantations were there in India?
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In 1851 how many tea plantations were there?
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How did the Raj maintain loyalty in the agriculture?
By creating a loyal landowning class named the Taluqdars
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What happened to industry over time?
It grew with a focus on cotton
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What did nationalist leaders use cotton for?
To gain support
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What was preferred- Indian or British fabrics made from Indian cotton?
British made goods
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In 1900 what percentage of India was hindu?
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In 1900, what percentage of India was Muslim?
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Why were many Indians not critical of the Raj?
Because they were employed by the British
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How did Indians gain high up positions?
By paying for education and working up the bureaucracy
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When was the first meeting of the Indian national congress?
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What did the Indian National Congress discuss?
Indian nationalist sentiment, its direction action
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How many people attended the first Indian national congress?
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How many Muslims attended the first meeting of the INC?
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What was the majority religion that attended the first INC meeting?
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Were the INC loyal to the Raj?
At first yes
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What were some of the primary concerns of the INC?
Open the ICS to Indians, opportunities for Indians to serve on national councils, abolish the Secretary of State and spend more on internal improvements
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What happened to British establishment's workforce in India over time?
It employed more Indians
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What had the 1857 rebellion shown?
That to keep its power it needed to stay in touch with Indians
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What was the army seen as?
A blunt instrument
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What force did the Raj rely on to maintain power?
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How many policemen were there for every 2000 inhabitants of Madras?
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Who were most menial tasks done by in the ICS and what did this cause?
Low paid Indians which lead to corruption
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Did the Raj believe that the Princes were supportive of the regime?
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Who parted Bengal?
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When was Bengal partitioned?
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Why did Curzon partition Bengal?
He thought it would make it more efficient
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Who opposed the partition of Bengal?
The Hindus as it meant that the Muslims would have a majority in Eastern Bengal
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What did the partition cause?
Nationwide protests and rioting
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What did the partition create?
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What was elected in 1906?
A liberal government
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Who was secretary of state for India in 1906?
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Did Morley support home rule for Ireland?
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What did Morley believe about Indians?
That they should have more of a role in the governing of India
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Who first suggested the Morley Minto reforms?
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Who was Lord Minto?
He took over as viceroy after Lord Curzon
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What did Minto realise about politically active Indians?
That they could sway the masses
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Why were the Morley-Minto reforms created?
In response to the backlash over the partition of Bengal as more nationalist politicians were being created and protests escalated
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What did many politicians think was going to happen as a result of the partition of Bengal?
A rebellion like that of 1857
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What did the Morley-Minto reforms do regarding the Viceroys executive council?
60 Indian representatives were to be elected to this
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What did the Morley Minto reforms do regarding provincial councils?
Enlarge them to create non-official majorities
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What did the Morley-Minto reforms create for Hindus and Muslims?
Separate electorates so the Muslims could also have a voice
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What did John Morley himself do?
Appointed two Indians to serve on his advisory board
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What did the Morley-Minto reforms end?
100 years of all-white colonial rule
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Why were the Hindu's irritated by the Morley-Minto reforms?
Because they gave the Muslims a voice and protected them
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What did the Simla deputation do?
Created separate electorates for Muslims
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On average, how many soldiers died in WW1?
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Why did the Indians fight?
They felt a duty of obligation to their empire but also due to blackmail by the British
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How many Indians were recruited by 1919?
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How much money did India contribute to the war?
Over 146 million
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How many Indian animals were sent to contribute to the war?
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Were there any uprisings throughout WW1?
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What happened to taxes in India during WW1?
They rose dramatically
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How much did the price of grain rise by in the war?
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What were the provincial governments worried about during the war?
The decline in support for the Raj
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What did the Indians do in response to poor standard of living throughout the war?
Rioted and looted
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Were there many people available to rule India through the war?
No as they were preoccupied with the war
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When would it have been a good time for the Indians to stage an uprising?
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What did the allies claim that they were fighting for during the war?
The protection of democracy which was hypocritical
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What did the purpose of the war do for Indian nationalism?
It fed it and their arguments for self-rule, they used it as a turning point and applied the purpose of the war to their own cause. It also brought the Muslim league and Congress together
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What happened to the self esteem of soldiers and why?
It grew as they began to see themselves as equals- fighting alongside British colonial forces
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What began happening in England?
Home rule leagues were developing such as that of Annie Besant
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What was the Lucknow pact?
An agreement between the Muslim League and Congress that Muslims would have a fixed proportion of seats in the Indian Parliament and extra seats in areas where they were a minority
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Name a Hindu extreemist
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What did home rule leagues aim to do?
Stimulate public opinion and organise public pressure for home rule. They used propaganda to do so
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After one year of the home rule leagues, how many members did they have?
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What happened to some of the leaders of home rule leagues?
They were banned in certain areas demonstrating British concern
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What did the British realise as a result of the home rule leagues?
That they needed to give the Indians more powers
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What lead to the Montagu-Chelmsford reforrms?
Home rule leagues and the Indian contribution to the war effort
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Who was Montagu?
A British liberal
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Who was Chelsford?
Viceroy at the time
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What did the 1917 revolution do?
Created fear in the British that the same thing would occur in India
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What did the montagu-chelmsford reforms commit themselves to?
The eventual allowing of the Indians to run themselves
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What did Montagu do to develop his reforms?
He travelled to India to hear other people's opinions
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What did Montagu feel that the administration in India was?
A dead hand
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What was the Montagu-Chelmsford reformed also named?
The government of India act 1919
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What did the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms say regarding the viceroy?
That he must be advised by a council of six civilians- three of whom had to be Indians. That he could make and enforce laws without the legislative councils input.
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What did the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms say regarding the legislative councils?
That they were to be enlarged
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What did the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms say regarding provincial councils?
They should be enlarged and given power over the education, agriculture, health and public works. They could also choose if women in their area could vote.
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What was the purpose of the Montagu-Chelmsford acts?
To protect the Raj
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What did the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms create in Britain?
A divide between left and right politicians who either thought they had gone too far or not far enough
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What did the ICS believe about the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms?
That they hadn't gone far enough
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How did the Indians react to the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms?
Some accepted them, others thought that they hadn't gone far enough and violence broke out
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What did Congress do with the Government of India Act of 1919?
Boycotted the elections and rejected the reforms
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Name some of the problems post-war India faced
Spanish flu epidemic killing 13 million Indians, flooding and rioting
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How did the British respond to the fear of an uprising in post war India?
Introduced the Rowlatt Acts
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Who created these?
Judge Rowlatt who saw that there was more revolutionary activity in areas such as Bengal and so introduced military like rules.
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When were the Rowlatt acts passed?
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Name one of the Rowlatt acts
The crawling order, curfews, house arrest etc
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Why did the crawling order anger Indians?
It was very disrespectful to their caste system
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What were the short term effects of the Rowlatt acts?
They were useless and did not last long, alienated the public to government and almost destroyed the montagu-chelmsford reforms as tthey were now seen as useless
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What were Hartals?
Organised strikes and protests against the Rowlatt acts
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What was the trigger of the Amritsar massacre?
The leaders of the hartals were arrested and so people protested and rioted against their imprisonment- many offices were raided and British workers killed
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What did O'Dwyer do about the rioting as a response to the Rowlatt acts?
He ordered general Dyer to sort the situation out
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How many troops did Dyer have under his command?
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What did Dyer do at first?
Lead troops and armoured vehicles through amritsar to make a statement but he was mocked by the Indians
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What did Dyer do with regard to the Baisaki festival?
He said that no processions were allowed to occur and no-one could leave their house after 8pm
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What caused the massacre?
The pilgrims met unarmed in Amritsar to celebrate their festival around 15,000-50,000 people.
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What did Dyer do?
Fired continually on the crowd until all ammunition had been used
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How many people were killed in the amritsar massacre??
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How many people were injured in the massacre?
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What else did Dyer do after the massacre?
Introduced humiliating temporary laws that were racially humiliating
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What did many English people think of Dyer?
That he saved the empire- they sang "for he's a jolly good fellow" and set up a fund for him
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What investigated the massacre?
The hunter commission
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What happened to Dyer?
He was forced to resign
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What was the view of Tilak?
He was prepared to use force to achieve self government
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What was Gokhale's view?
That the Indians should respect the Raj and move slowly to independence
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What did divisions amongst congress allow?
Gandhi to emerge as a leader
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What did Gandhi create which gained him much support?
The ideas of Swaraj and satyagraha
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What did swaraj and satyagraha mean?
Non-violent passive resistance to evil
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How did Gandhi himself appeal to the masses?
He was like one of them, wearing a Dhoti and acting as one of them
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What type of a society did Gandhi believe in?
One of small self-sufficient communities
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What did Gandhi do in response to the Rowlatt acts?
Called for hartals
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What did Gandhi launch from 1920-22?
His first civil disobedience campaign
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What happened in the first civil disobedience campaign?
Gandhi called for people to take their children out of government schools, boycott elections, withhold taxes, refuse to buy imported goods and resign from government posts
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Why did Gandhi call an end to the first civil disobedience campaign?
Because it began to turn violent
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What happened to Gandhi after the first civil disobedience campaign?
He was arrested and sentenced to 6 years in prison
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What happened to congress when Gandhi was in prison?
Leadership was passed to moderates Das and Nehru which made the party more popular as they were prepared to stand in elections. Conservative members left.
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Who were the young hooligans?
The more extreemist younger members of congress who were attracted to socialism
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What was the simon commission?
A commission sent by the conservative government to report on the working of the Indian constitution
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What was wrong with the Simon commission?
It did not involve or include Indians
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How did congress react to the simon commission?
They demonstrated against it and boycotted it
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What was the purpose of the Simon Commission?
To decide the future of India
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What did the Simon Commission propose?
Eventual dominion status for India
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What was the Nehru report?
The report published in response to the simon commission
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How many members did Congress have in 1921?
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What was the all spinners association?
The association set up by Gandhi to promote cotton spinning and self sufficiency
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Name some of Gandhi's campaigns
His campaign to bring untouchables into society and literacy
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What did the report of the simon commission actually do?
Nothing more than re-assert the situation in India
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Why were the Muslims unhappy with the Nehru report?
Because they would loose their separate electorates
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Other cards in this set
When was the EIC established?
What was the purpose of the EIC?
Who else traded Indian goods?
What did the charter of the EIC mean for England?