The Boom and the Roaring 20's

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  • Created on: 25-05-15 15:20
What 8 things caused the boom in 1920s?
1. Mass Production 2. Hire Purchase 3. Isolationism. 4. New Industries. 5. Weak Unions. 6. Natural Resources. 7. Technology. 8. Shares.
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How did MASS PRODUCTION contribute to the boom?
Esp, in the automobile industry (assembly line).
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How did HIRE PURCHASE (+ CREDIT) contribute to the boom?
“buy now pay later”. Borrowing increased the amount of money available to spend, and, therefore the demand for goods.
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How did SHARES contribute to the boom?
firms learned to raise money for expansion by selling shares on the stock exchange.
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What NATURAL RESOURCES did the US have that contributed the boom?
Wood, iron, coal, oil + land.
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How did WEAK UNIONS contribute to the boom?
Republicans were hostile to trade unions this allowed employers to keep wages low and hours of work long.
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What did the USA do to Encourage Isolationism?
1. Reject the Treaty of Versailles. 2. Introduce the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. 3. Reduce Immigration (the Immigration Quota Act 1921
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Give 5 Background Info of the USA up to 1920.
USA had: - 1. Huge resources. 2. Growing population (lot of immigrants willing to work hard). 3. Growing transport + manufacturing industtry. 4. Did not suffer the financial + physical damage of WW1. 5. Supported Europe with weapons.
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Give an Extra 5 Background Info of the USA up to 1920.
6. New technology, growing chemical industry. 7. Republican govt believed in rugged individualism 8. Taken over markets from Britain during WW1. 9. Tariffs on imported goods to force people to buy US goods. 10. Low taxes.
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Give 3 Background Info of the USA up to 1920.
11. Growing confidence that USA couldn't fail. 12. Hire purchase. 13. Isolationism.
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What is Isolationism?
USA wanted to keep out of foreign disputes so they could concentrate on domestic industry. They didn't want to be dragged into Europe's wars.
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What industries prospered from the boom?
1. Cars 2. Electrical goods. 3. Chemical. 4. Advertising 5. Big stores in cities 7. Construction
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How did the CARS industry prosper?
Decreased in price = most Americans could afford them.
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How did the ELECTRICAL GOODS industry prosper?
Domestic appliances = cooking + cleaning was easier.
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How did the CHEMICALS industry prosper?
Nylon = cheaper clothes, cheaper fabrics like rayon = cheaper clothes. Chemicals = new products like fertilisers + man-made fibres, these products had a wide range of uses.
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How did the ADVERTISING industry prosper?
Meant businesses could promote their businesses better, there was a variety of ways to advertise products, people could buy things from the comfort of their own home (mags, radio advertising, mail-order catalogues all boomed).
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How did the BIG STORES IN CITIES industry prosper?
Attracted more customers = more money. Dress sizes were introduced. Wider choice of materials + styles.
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How did the CONTSTRUCTION industry prosper?
Factories = industrial growth = demand for new factories.
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Which industries did not prosper?
1. Coal mining 2. Textiles 3. Ship building.
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Why did the COAL MINING, TEXTILES + SHIP BUILDING industies not prosper?
1. They were already developed SO consumer demand could only grow to a limited degree. 2. Less areas for expansion.
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Why else did the TEXTILE industry not prosper?
Nothern textile industries faced competion in the South (where labour was cheaper OR from new artificial fibres e.g. rayon + nylon).
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Why did else did the COAL MINING industry not prosper?
Greater use of electricity + oil for heating = demand for coal fell.
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What caused some industries not to prosper + why?
High tariffs bc some industries could not export goods to other countries.
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State 2 reasons why agriculture did not share in the prosperity?
1. They benefitted in wartime selling their products + high prices to allies. When demand for US agriculture fell, farmers were overproducing. 2. Overproduction came when US population was falling.
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State 3 reasons why agriculture did not share in the prosperity?
3. They faced competition against highly efficient Canadian wheat producers. 5. High tariffs US placed on foreign imports = other countries could not afford to buy American goods = prices collapsed = farmers earned 1⁄3 of the average wage.
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State another 2 reasons why agriculture did not share in the prosperity?
6. Crops were often ruined by pests, e.g. boll-weevil. 7. Many farmers borrowed money in the hope that price would cover but they never did. Many farmers were forced to give their land to banks since they couldn’t afford repayments.
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State another 3 reasons why agriculture did not share in the prosperity?
8. The govt did little to help farmers. 9. New technology e.g. combine harvesters + fertilisers = farming became so efficient so there was over production = put people out of work. 10. Prohibition = barley + grape decline..
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State 4 groups who benefitted from the boom + why.
1. The rich + middle classes. 2. New consumer industries - card, electrical goods. 3. Construction industry bc they needed to build new roads, skyscrapers etc. 4. The west + north-east, where most of the USA's industry was.
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Which 1 other group benefitted from the boom + why?
5. Fruit farmers benefitted from the growind demand for fresh produce.
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5% of the US population owned how much of the country's wealth?
1/3.
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State 3 groups who the boom DID NOT benefit from the boom
1. 60% of the population still lived below the poverty line. 2. The south (which was mainly agricultural) did the worse. 3. Black people suffered discrimination + were in the worst paid jobs (usually agriculural labourers or sharecroppers).
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State another 3 groups who the boom DID NOT benefit from the boom
4. Native Americans were living on reservations where land was so poor + impossible to scrape a living from it. 5. Workers from the traditional industries. 6. Casual workers and immigrants.
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Why did casual workers + immigrants not benefit from the boom?
They found it difficult to find jobs esp. since electricity had mechanised jobs once done by men.
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Why did blacks not benefit from the boom?
1. They were poorly educated compared to whites. 2. Job opportunities were different for blacks. They were left with the job opportunities white people did not want.
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Why did Native American's benefit from the boom
They lived on reservations which produced low crops on bad land.
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What were 3 weaknesses in the US economy by the late 1920s?
1. Low wages = unable to buy agricultural products = = overproduction = low prices for agricultural products = agricultural income remained low.agricultural income remained low. 2. Low wages. 3. Unequal distribution of wealth.
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What are another 3 weaknesses in the US economy by the late 1920s?
4. Over speculation on the stock market that was unregulated. 5. Protective tariffs. 6. Bank failures - banks were making irresponsible loans. People were buying on credit but didn't have enough money in the future when the bills came through.
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State 5 ways the lives for women changed in the 20s.
1. The number of employed women rose. 2. New jobs created by telephone / typwriter. 3. All women got the vote. 4. Dress hems rose, hair short smoke + drank. Flappers. 5. Women smoke + drank piublically, drove cars, played sport, went about alone.
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What 5 things in the entertainment industry impacted the roaring 20s.
1. Cinema. 2. Music + dancing. 3. Sport. 4. Shopping 5. Leisure time.
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How did CINEMA impact the roaring 20s?
Everyone went to the cinema. Films promoted new fashions + taught people new ways to behave. First film stars Rudolph Valentino + talkies.
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How did MUSIC + DANCING impact the roaring 20s?
Dancing became popular (Charleston + Black Bottom) older generation didn't approve. Popular music was helped by cheap radios + jazz was popular (black musicians).
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How did SPORT impact the roaring 20s?
Greater prosperity led to more leisure time - baseball + boxing = popular. People began to attend on a mass scale.
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How did SHOPPING impact the roaring 20s?
Department stores + catalogues allowed shopping to become a new leisure activity.
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How did LEISURE TIME impact the roaring 20s?
All the new consumer goods fridges, washing machines, vacuum cleaners meant women had more time to indulge in new activiies.
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Who were Reds?
People suspected of being Communist's
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What caused Sacco + Vanzetti to become arrested?
1. Robbers in a shoe shop factory stole $16,000 + shot 2 staff dead. 2. Witnesses said the attackers were foreign looking.
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1. Who were Sacco + Vanzetti. 2. Did they have an alibi when they were arrested?
1. They were known anarchists. 2. They were arrested even though they had an alibi.
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What was the trial for Sacco + Vanzetti like?
1. Trial was farce (disorganised) evidence was tampered with + they were sent to the electric chair. 2. Years later they were pardoned (asked for forgiveness).
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What 2 things shows how USA were intolerant during the roaring 20s?
1. Red Scare. 2. Monkey Trial
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Describe the 4 points in the Monkey Trial.
1. A law was passed in 6 states prohibiting the teaching of Darwin's evolution ideas. 2. John Scopes taught Darwin's theory. 3. Scopes was conficted...BUT...it was really Fundamentalism on trial + it lost. 4. John Scopes was fined $100.
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Who was the lawyer for a) John Scopes b) the Fundamentalists in the Monkey Trial.
a) Darrow was Scopes’ lawyer b) The lawyer for the Fundamentalists was William Jennings Bryan.
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How was Bryan shown to be like in the Monkey Trial.
Bryan who claimed to be an expert on religion and science was shown to be ignorant and confused.
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What caused the Red Scare?
1. The Communist Revolution in Russia alarmed Americans. 2.  American’s thought that letting more people into their country was adding to America’s problems. Diluting their ‘true’ Anglo-Saxon (white, European) nature.
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What convinced American's that communists were trying to destroy their way of life?
Strikes.
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What marked the beginning of the world 'Red Scare'?
Strikes
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a) What did the authorities use across the country to whip up a Red Scare? b) How many people were deported?
a) A series of bombings. b) 4000+ people (mainly Russians) were deported.
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What did the USA decide to do in 1921 which limited numbers coming into USA?
They changed their open door policy with the 1921 Immigration Quota Act.
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What 3 things did immigation cause?
1. Racial prejudice. 2. Religious prejudice. 3. Increase in poverty.
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Who were the KKK? (State 3 things)
1. Attacked mostly black bur also Catholics + Jews. 2. KKK was al white + operated mostly in the south. 3. It aimed to clean up the USA.
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What did the KKK do?
4. They held secret ceremonies, wore all white + took part in lynching black people, using violence + terror (whipping, beating + burning).
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What 2 things caused the Prohibition?
1. Pressure groups (e.g. Anti-Saloon League + the Women's Christian Temperance Union) claimed alcohol lead to violence, immoral behaviour + breakdown of family life. 2. A ban on alcohol = a boost supplies of important grains e.g. barley.
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What 2 other things caused the Prohibition?
3. WW1 = increase support for Prohibition. Many breweries were owned by German immigrants + the USA was fighting Germany. 4. The consumption of alcohol went against God's will.
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What other 1 thing caused the Prohibition?
5. Many thought it was wrong for some Americans to enjoy alcohol while the country’s young men were at war.
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Why NOT ban alcohol?
Less tax money = people lose jobs.
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a) What was the 18th Amendement? b) When did it come into effect?
a) 18th Amendement prohibited the sale, manufacture or transportation of alcohol. b) It came into affect in 1920.
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What was the Volstead Act?
Defined ‘intoxicating liquor’ as any liquid with more than half a per cent of alcohol
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State 2 things that happened during the Prohibition
1. The drinking of alcohol didn't stop, instead it was driven underground + became a profitable business. 2. Bootleggers supplied illegal alcohol often moonshine (home made alcohol) ot smuggled across the borders from Canada + Mexico.
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tate another 2 things that happened during the Prohibition
3. Speakeasies (these were illegal drinking clubs hidden in ordinary buildings). 4. Illegal alcohol was often operated by gangsters like Al Capone.
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tate another 2 things that happened during the Prohibition
5. It ddn't reduce crime but increased it. People bribed + intimidated judges + politicians.and people fought each other. 6.Lots of people drank even the President - many usual law abiding citizens broke the law.
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Describe the cinema industry
1. Film becaame essential mass entertainment + multi-million dollar industries. 2. Hollywood = film-making capital. 3. Movie-going became a popular leisure persuit. 4. Film making was mass produced.
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Describe 4 ways in which manners + morals changed.
1. Young people enjoyed smoking, dancing + cocktail parties. 2. Flappers. 3. Church attendance fell.4. Divorce rate increased.
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Who was Al Capone? (State 5 relevant things about him)
1. Gangster who ran Chicago. 2. He murdered anyone who opposed him (1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre). 3. Highly visible public figure. 4. Making $60m a year from alcohol + $45m from gambling, dance halls + race tracks. 5. Jailed for tax evasion.
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Why was Prohibition abolished in 1933 by Roosevelt?
1. It failed - drinking contuined 2. Law enforcement had proved impossible + corrupted the police. 3. Encouraged the growth of organised crime + gangsters. 4. USA was in the middle of Depression the alcohol industry + the taxes it raised would help.
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State 3 ways in which Prohibition was a SUCCESS
1. Women became freer as they were allowed to drink in speakeasies. 2. It must have prevented some American's becoming alcoholics. 3. Many obeyed the law. Non-alcoholic cocktails became popular.
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State another 3 ways in which Prohibition was a SUCCESS
4. Some people stopped drinking + spent time with their family. 5. Black musicians entertained in speakies. Prohibition helped black American's gain more freedom. 6. Alcohol consumption fell by 1/3.
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State 4 ways in which Prohibition was a FAILURE
1. Many disobeyed the law. 2. There weren't enough Prohibition agents to enforce the law. 3. The size of USAs boundaries = hard for Prohibition agents to control smuggling by bootleggers. 4. Low salary paid to the agents = easy to bribe + intimidate.
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State another 2 ways in which Prohibition was a FAILURE
5. People traded alcohol underground instead. 6. Many American's were willing to drink in speakeasies.
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State another 3 ways in which Prohibition was a FAILURE
7. Protection rackets, organised crime + murders were more common during Prohibition than when alcohol could be bought legally. 8. Jugdes + policemen took bribes from gangsters. 9. Some policemen got involved in bootlegging.
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State another 1 way in which Prohibition was a FAILURE
10. Members of Congress bought alcohol.
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Describe life for women before WW1 (state 5 things).
1. Were employed in taditional jobs. Domestic service, textiles. 2. Couldn't vote. 3. Were expected to have long hair, wear garments full. 4. Were expected not to drink in public. 5. Were chaperoned.
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Describe what life was liky for most blacks (state 5 things).
1. Blacks continued to suffer discrimination. 2. Ill + unfair treatment + intimidation by whites. 3. Jim Crow laws enforced segregation (many states accepted segregation laws). 4. Blacks suffered the most in the South. 5. KKK was prevalent in South.
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Why did many blacks move to the North?
Segregation, widespread violence of lynching + lack of opportunities in the South.
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What was the Black Renaissance.
1. Black culture + pride flourished in North. 2. Harlem became the centre of an artistic Renaissance. 3. Jazz, blues + soul = popular.
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In 1919 thousands of blacks were driven from their homes in 23 ____ _____.
23 race riots. This was one of the most violent years for black Americans.
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What was the UNIA.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association - encouraged blacks to set up their own business. This was one of the 2 major political movements for backs.
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What was the NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. This was one of the 2 major political movements for blacks.
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Card 2

Front

How did MASS PRODUCTION contribute to the boom?

Back

Esp, in the automobile industry (assembly line).

Card 3

Front

How did HIRE PURCHASE (+ CREDIT) contribute to the boom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did SHARES contribute to the boom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What NATURAL RESOURCES did the US have that contributed the boom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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