The blood system

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  • Created by: elyornais
  • Created on: 16-03-15 15:39
What organisms need a specialised transport system?
Large animals with a small surface area and more active.
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Why is blood returned to the heart before going to the rest of the tissues?
To boost the pressure and speed up circulation.
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What vessel takes oxygenated blood to the kidneys?
Renal artery
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What vessel takes deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys?
Renal vein
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What vessel is in between the stomach and intestines and the liver?
Hepatic portal vein
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What vessel takes oxygenated blood to the liver?
Hepatic artery
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What vessel takes deoxygenated blood away from the liver?
Hepatic vein
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What do arteries do?
Carry blood away from heart into arterioles.
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What do arterioles do?
They are smaller arteries that control blood flow from arteries to capillaries.
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What are capillaries?
Tiny vessels that link arterioles to veins.
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What do veins do?
Carry blood from capillaries back to the heart.
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What does the tough outer layer do?
Resists pressure changes from both within and outside.
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What does the muscle layer do?
Contract to control the flow of blood.
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What does the elastic layer do?
Helps maintain blood pressure by stretching and springing back.
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What is the function of the thin inner lining (endothelium)?
Smooth to prevent friction and thin to allow diffusion.
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What is the lumen?
Central cavity of the blood vessel.
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What is the muscle layer of an artery like compared to veins?
Thick so that smaller arteries can constrict and dilate to control the volume of blood passing through them.
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What is the elastic layer of an artery like?
Thick because blood pressure must be kept high to reach the body. The stretching and recoil action helps to maintain high pressure and smooth pressure surges created.
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What is the overall thickness of an artery?
Large to resist vessel bursting under pressure.
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What is the muscle thickness of an arteriole and how does this relate to its function?
Thicker than in arteries and contraction allows constriction of the lumen. This restricts blood flow so controls its movement into the capillaries that supply tissues with blood.
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What is the elastic layer of an arteriole like?
Thinner than in arteries because blood pressure is lower.
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What is the thickness of the muscle layer of a vein?
Thin because blood is carried away from tissue so no need to control the flow of blood.
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What is the elastic layer like in a vein?
Thin because low pressure of blood.
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Are there any valves in veins?
Yes valves are throughout to prevent backflow as pressure is so low.
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What is the function of capillaries?
To exchange metabolic materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and glucose between blood and cells.
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Why is the wall of a capillary made from just one layer?
Gives a short diffusion pathway for rapid diffusion of materials.
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How do capillaries make a large surface area?
Numerous and highly branch.
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Why is the lumen of a capillary so narrow?
So that red blood cells are squeezed flat against the side bringing them closer to cells which they supply oxygen.
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Why are there spaces between the endothelial cells of a capillary?
To allow white blood cells to escape in order to deal with infections.
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What is tissue fluid?
Watery liquid formed from blood plasma containing glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and oxygen.
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How is tissue fluid formed?
1.) Blood passes along arteries, arterioles, capillaries, creates hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end. 2.)Tissue fluid forced out of blood plasma.3.) outward pressure is opposed by 2 other forces. 4.)Ultrafiltration.
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What are the two other forces?
1.)Hydrostatic pressure of the tissue fluid outside capillaries, prevents outward movement of liquid.2.)Lower water potential of the blood due to plasma proteins, pulls water back into blood within capillaries.
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How is tissue fluid returned to the circulatory system?
Loss of tissue fluid from capillaries reduces hydrostatic pressure->Pressure less than that of the fluid outside->Tissue fluid forced back into capillaries->osmotic forces pull water back into capillaries.
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How are the contents of the lymphatic system moved?
Hydrostatic pressure and contraction of body muscles that squeeze lymph vessels.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is blood returned to the heart before going to the rest of the tissues?

Back

To boost the pressure and speed up circulation.

Card 3

Front

What vessel takes oxygenated blood to the kidneys?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What vessel takes deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What vessel is in between the stomach and intestines and the liver?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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