The biosphere

The value of the biosphere

How humans have affected it

How it might be conserved

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Biosphere
The zone where life is found
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Ecosystem
A community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment
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Biome
A very large/ global scale ecosystem e.g tropical rain-forests
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The worlds major biomes
Tropical rain-forests, savannah, desert, Mediterranean, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra
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Tropical rainforests
Mostly found near the equator, high temperature (hot), heavy rainfall
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Deserts
Close to tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Where dry air sinks down to the Earth's surface and the sun rays are very concentrated = hot
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Tundra
Within the arctic circle, with little heat from sun and little rainfall
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Deciduous forests
High rainfall and seasonal variations in Sun rays. Trees lose leaves in winter
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Coniferous forest
Higher latitude so sun rays are weak. Trees are adapted to the cold
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Local factors influencing biomes - altitude
The higher the altitude, the lower the temperature
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Local factors influencing biomes - rainfall
The higher the altitude, the higher the rainfall trends tend to be
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Local factors influencing biomes - drainage
Swamps and bogs occur where drainage is poor
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Local factors influencing biomes - rock and soil type
Effects how fertile areas in different biomes are
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Ecosystem services
Services that satisfy needs, that cannot be touched e.g providing employment, climatic regulation, nutrient cycling
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Ecosystem goods
Value to people, can be touched e.g meat, fish, biomass, drinking water, gene pool
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Green lungs
Forests remove co2 from atmosphere which reduces global warming. The forests also give out oxygen which purifies the atmosphere
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Water control
Forests protect watersheds from soil erosion and intercept precipitation - prevents flooding . Traps silt which keeps water pure. Reefs and mangroves provide barriers from coastal storms.
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Nutrient cycling
Forests proved leaf litter which forms humus. This makes soil more fertile for growing crops
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Providing habitats
Rain-forests and reefs are very bio diverse. Provide homes for a large variety of organisms
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Recreation
Reefs and rain forests are very attractive which boosts tourism.
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Deforestation
Commercial logging destroys forest unless sustainable - flooding, soil erosion increase and humus formation decrease. E.g. Amazon
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Conversion to farm land or urbanisation
Commercial intensive farming destroys/ alters ecosystem. Urbanisation destroys ecosystems and increases wildfires e.g. Cattle farming in Amazon
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Over-harvesting/ fishing
Causes animals to be hunted to extinction and destroys food chains e,g, orangutan
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Mining
Cuts away whole hillsides. Only partly successful. Oil drilling in rain forests e.g. Amazon
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Over-tourism
High density Mass tourism = disturbance of wildlife
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Indirect effects of pollution on biosphere
Plants are flowering earlier, bird migration patterns changing rapidly, Arctic tundra warming rapidly,
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Indirect effects of climate on biosphere
More frequent droughts, in future could be sources of co2 in Amazon, which could then increase global warming even more
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RAMSAR
Protection of wetlands in 163 countries in which there important habitats for migration birds
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CITES
aims to stop the trade of products from endangered species e.g elephant ivory and crocodile skin handbags - adopted by 166 countries
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National parks - local
Own planning authorities that protect the environment of a specific area alongside pressures of tourism
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Sustainable environmental management - Kilum Ijim
Mountainous forest area in Cameroon home to 35 communities. 250,000 people live a days walk away and forest was under pressure from farming and logging. Solutions: marked out forest reserve area, developed rules, educated communities and monitored.
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Economic outcomes
Reduce poverty, help local people make a living e.g. Eco tourism
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Social outcomes
Improving local facilities which benefit the whole community e.g. Health clinics, education
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Environmental outcomes
Protect natural environment from degradation e.g. Replacing trees
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment

Back

Ecosystem

Card 3

Front

A very large/ global scale ecosystem e.g tropical rain-forests

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tropical rain-forests, savannah, desert, Mediterranean, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mostly found near the equator, high temperature (hot), heavy rainfall

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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