1. Who conducted a meta-analysis of 40 twin studies?
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2. What did Heston find out?
- 5/47 of the children whose biological mothers had Schizophrenia developed the disease as opposed to 0/45 in the control group
- Having an identical twin with Schizophrenia gave you a 48% chance of getting the disease, this reduced to 17% in non-identical twins
3. What is meant by infection being the cause of psychological disorders?
- Disorders are caused by infection such as General Paresis, a condition involving delusion and moodswing which result in death. It is caused by Syphilis
- Accidental brain injury may caused psychological disorders such as in the case of Phinaes Gage
- Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter may produce psychological disorders such as an increased level of dopamine being linked to Schizophrenia
4. What points can be used to evaluate Gottesman's study?
- It has a high ecological validity as the meta-analysis was carried out on field studies, there must be other factors involved as not all the second twins developed the disorder and family environment may play a part.
- Interviews were used to collect the data which is a naturalistic way but they can be affected by social desirability bias
5. What are the weaknesses or the biological model?
- Biological therapies raise ethical concerns for example, drugs can produce addiction and only supress the symptoms also psychological therapies can be just as effective and psychological disorders may not all be linked to physical causes
- It has a strong scientific basis, it can be seen as ethical as it doesn't blame people for their disorders and biological therapies have helped relieve conditions that were hard to treat previously