The Biological model of abnormality and treatments

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1. What is meant by infection being the cause of psychological disorders?

  • Disorders are caused by infection such as General Paresis, a condition involving delusion and moodswing which result in death. It is caused by Syphilis
  • Accidental brain injury may caused psychological disorders such as in the case of Phinaes Gage
  • Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter may produce psychological disorders such as an increased level of dopamine being linked to Schizophrenia
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2. What is meant by brain injury being the cause of psychological disorders?

  • Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter may produce psychological disorders such as an increased level of dopamine being linked to Schizophrenia
  • Accidental brain injury may caused psychological disorders such as in the case of Phinaes Gage
  • Faulty genes are known to cause some diseases that have psychological effects such as Huntington's disease

3. What does the biological model assume?

  • That all psychological disorders are caused by neurotransmitters
  • That psychological disorders are physical illnesses with physical cause
  • That all psychological disorders are caused by infection

4. What is meant by the biological therapy: psychosurgery?

  • Drugs can be used to change neurotransmitter levels in the brain for example, phenothiazines reduce levels of Dopamine and thus relieve the symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Brain surgery involving destruction or seperation of parts of the brain for example the frontol lobotomy which helps to reduce aggresion
  • Electro-Convulsive Therapy in which an electric shock is administered to the brain, it can help to relieve depression

5. Who conducted a meta-analysis of 40 twin studies?

  • Yates
  • Gottesman
  • Heaton

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