The Biological model of abnormality and treatments

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1. What points can be used evaluate Heston's research?

  • Interviews were used to collect the data which is a naturalistic way but they can be affected by social desirability bias
  • It has a high ecological validity as the meta-analysis was carried out on field studies, there must be other factors involved as not all the second twins developed the disorder and family environment may play a part.
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2. What is meant by genetics being the cause of psychological disorders?

  • Faulty genes are known to cause some diseases that have psychological effects such as Huntington's disease
  • Accidental brain injury may caused psychological disorders such as in the case of Phinaes Gage
  • Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter may produce psychological disorders such as an increased level of dopamine being linked to Schizophrenia

3. What points can be used to evaluate Gottesman's study?

  • It has a high ecological validity as the meta-analysis was carried out on field studies, there must be other factors involved as not all the second twins developed the disorder and family environment may play a part.
  • Interviews were used to collect the data which is a naturalistic way but they can be affected by social desirability bias

4. What did Gottesman discover?

  • Having an identical twin with Schizophrenia gave you a 48% chance of getting the disease, this reduced to 17% in non-identical twins
  • 5/47 of the children whose biological mothers had Schizophrenia developed the disease as opposed to 0/45 in the control group

5. What is meant by the biological therapy: psychosurgery?

  • Brain surgery involving destruction or seperation of parts of the brain for example the frontol lobotomy which helps to reduce aggresion
  • Electro-Convulsive Therapy in which an electric shock is administered to the brain, it can help to relieve depression
  • Drugs can be used to change neurotransmitter levels in the brain for example, phenothiazines reduce levels of Dopamine and thus relieve the symptoms of Schizophrenia

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