The Arms-Race

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 16-04-15 08:41
WHY WAS THERE AN ARMS-RACE EH?
1. International tension. The world events post-WW2 enhanced the tensions between the USSR and USA. 2. National and personal issues: Technological achievement became a yard stick by which merits of capitalism and communism could be measured.
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Why did Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) invest so much in arms?
His youth and inexperience made him keen to defend America and public fears – despite the U2 planes showing Russia weren’t technologically advanced.
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How much were America spending on military arms by 1962?
50$ billion
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Why did Domestic Factors influence military spending?
Groups in countries that benefit from armament orders i.e the army.
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When was the first atomic bomb dropped?
1945: used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
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What was the 1946 Baruch Plan?
Attempts to control nuclear weapon development, suggested by the USA. It failed.
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What significant event happened in 1949?
Russia explodes first atomic bomb at Semipalatinsk (Czechoslovakia). Helped by spies Hall and Fuchs.
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Describe ‘mutually assured destruction’?
A doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender
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What was and when was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
1961: A demonstration of distaste that Cuba was no longer controlled by the USA. 1500 Cuban exiles invaded Cuba, with support from the CIA.
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How successful was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
It was a complete disaster and troops were either dead or captured within 72 hours.
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In July 1962 Khrushchev agreed to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. In response on September 4, 1962, President Kennedy issued a public warning against the introduction of offensive weapons into Cuba. Despite the warning, on October 14 a U.S.
On October 22, President Kennedy ordered a naval “quarantine” of Cuba.
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On October 24, Khrushchev responded to Kennedy’s message with a statement that the U.S. “blockade” was an “act of aggression” and that Soviet ships bound for Cuba would be ordered to proceed. Nevertheless, during October 24 and 25, some ships turn
Khrushchev sent Kennedy a message stating that he would remove missiles from Cuba if the USA promised not to attack Cuba. The next day, October 27, Khrushchev sent another message indicating that any proposed deal must include the removal of U.S.
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The next morning, October 28, Khrushchev issued a public statement that Soviet missiles would be dismantled and removed from Cuba and Kennedy secretly removed all weapons from Turkey.
November 20, 1962, the United States ended its quarantine. U.S. Jupiter missiles were removed from Turkey in April 1963.
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What were the consequences of the Cuban Missile crisis for the USA?
Positive: Kennedy got a good reputation and foreign policy success
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What are the consequences of the Cuban Missile crisis for the USSR?
Positive: Krushchev could claim credit for securing USA’s promise not to invade Cuba, and take their weapons off Turkey
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When did the USA test the Lithium bomb (competition shifts to development of delivery systems)?
March 1954
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When did the USSR test the Lithium bomb?
August 1953
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What happened in 1949 and how did it affect America?
China turned communist - this made America feel vulnerable
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When was the first bomber with intercortial range made by USA?
1955
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When did USSR make first ever balistic missile (it could carry a thermo-nuclear bomb)?
1957
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USSR put 1st man in space when?
1961
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When did the USA launch first submarine-launched ballistic missile?
1960
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Where did the USA keep their submarines?
Britain, closer to Russia.
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Card 2

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Why did Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) invest so much in arms?

Back

His youth and inexperience made him keen to defend America and public fears – despite the U2 planes showing Russia weren’t technologically advanced.

Card 3

Front

How much were America spending on military arms by 1962?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did Domestic Factors influence military spending?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was the first atomic bomb dropped?

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