1. How far was failure the responsibility of Franks of outremer? Examples
- Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling
- Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
- When the Crusaders attacked Damascus in July 1149, it was Nur ad Din the people turned to for help.
- Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion
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2. How important was lack of clear aims? Examples
- discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
- Antioch,June 1148,Council of Palmarea,decided it would be better to attack Damascus
- Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
3. Why was Byzantium hostile to crusaders
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
- Bohemond becomes ruler of Antioch, not Alexios
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
4. Why did Pope Eugenius call 2nd Crusade?
- “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
- Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
- Quantum Praedecessores emphasised the family traditions of crusading
- Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him
5. Why was Edessa captured 1144?
- Count Steven of Blois–wife Adela deeply religious.She made him go.
- Count Hugh of Vermandois–brother of King Phillip of France.
- County of Edessa so isolated and northerly.With least amount of population living in it.Relief dispatch took about 4 weeks to get there
- Bishop Adhemar Le Puy–close friend+keen supporter of pope.