1. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?
- Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
- strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
- Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval
- Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies
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2. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?
- In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
- Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
- Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles
- Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
3. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
4. How far was desire for wealth, examples?
- Prince Bohemund of Toronto–Father invaded Byzantine Empire 1080s.Expected to gain Balkans
- Count Hugh of Vermandois–brother of King Phillip of France.King had a dispute with Pope (Urban II) over adultery. Win back people’s favour
- Bishop Adhemar Le Puy–close friend+keen supporter of pope.Representative of Pope on Crusade
- Count Steven of Blois–wife Adela deeply religious.She made him go.
5. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples
- power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
- Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
- The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died