1. How important was spiritual motivation for participants? Examples
- motto helped them hold out for 6 hours before they won battle against Kerbogha
- Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
- Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion
- Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling siege tower under cover of darkness and reassembling it at a less well-defended section of the city wall, enabling crusaders to breach city’s defences.
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2. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
3. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
- power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
- The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.
- Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
4. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?
- Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
- strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
- Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval
- Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies
5. Explain why people's crusade failed?
- Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
- Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
- “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
- Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him