The 1st Crusade and the creation of the Crusader States

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1. How far was desire for wealth, examples?

  • Count Steven of Blois–wife Adela deeply religious.She made him go.
  • Count Hugh of Vermandois–brother of King Phillip of France.King had a dispute with Pope (Urban II) over adultery. Win back people’s favour
  • Prince Bohemund of Toronto–Father invaded Byzantine Empire 1080s.Expected to gain Balkans
  • Bishop Adhemar Le Puy–close friend+keen supporter of pope.Representative of Pope on Crusade
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2. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?

  • Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
  • In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
  • Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
  • Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles

3. How important was spiritual motivation for participants? Examples

  • Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling siege tower under cover of darkness and reassembling it at a less well-defended section of the city wall, enabling crusaders to breach city’s defences.
  • Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
  • motto helped them hold out for 6 hours before they won battle against Kerbogha
  • Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion

4. Explain why people's crusade failed?

  • Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
  • Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
  • Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him
  • “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto

5. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?

  • Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
  • strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
  • Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval
  • Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies

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