1. Explain why people's crusade failed?
- “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
- Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
- Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
- Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him
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2. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
- Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
- power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
- The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.
3. How far was desire for wealth, examples?
- Prince Bohemund of Toronto–Father invaded Byzantine Empire 1080s.Expected to gain Balkans
- Count Hugh of Vermandois–brother of King Phillip of France.King had a dispute with Pope (Urban II) over adultery. Win back people’s favour
- Bishop Adhemar Le Puy–close friend+keen supporter of pope.Representative of Pope on Crusade
- Count Steven of Blois–wife Adela deeply religious.She made him go.
4. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?
- In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
- Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
- Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles
- Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
5. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went