1. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?
- Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles
- In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
- Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
- Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
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2. How important was spiritual motivation for participants? Examples
- Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling siege tower under cover of darkness and reassembling it at a less well-defended section of the city wall, enabling crusaders to breach city’s defences.
- Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
- motto helped them hold out for 6 hours before they won battle against Kerbogha
- Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion
3. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
4. Explain why people's crusade failed?
- “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
- Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
- Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
- Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him
5. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples
- power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
- Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
- The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.