The 1st Crusade and the creation of the Crusader States

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1. How important was spiritual motivation for participants? Examples

  • motto helped them hold out for 6 hours before they won battle against Kerbogha
  • Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
  • Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion
  • Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling siege tower under cover of darkness and reassembling it at a less well-defended section of the city wall, enabling crusaders to breach city’s defences.
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2. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?

  • Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
  • Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
  • Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
  • Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited

3. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples

  • Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
  • power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
  • The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.
  • Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.

4. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?

  • Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
  • strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
  • Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval
  • Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies

5. Explain why people's crusade failed?

  • Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
  • Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
  • “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
  • Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him

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