1. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?
- In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
- Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
- Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
- Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles
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2. Explain why people's crusade failed?
- Tatikios withdrew February 1098, June 1098 – Alexios withdrew!
- Alexios makes leading lords swear oath of loyalty to him
- Peter Hermit – not strong leader – lead 15 000 followers
- “Stand fast together, trusting in Christ and the victory of the Holy Cross” was their motto
3. How important was muslim disunity to success of 1st crusade? Examples
- power vacuum in Seljuk Turk dynasty:“year of deaths of commanders and caliphs”.
- Got tricked by the Muslims – greedy, mostly died
- Tatikios, Byzantine government representative, provided guides until Antioch.
- The discovery of the Holy lance by Peter Bartholomew raised morale at crucial point.
4. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
5. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?
- strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
- Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
- Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies
- Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval