1. How far was desire for wealth, examples?
- Prince Bohemund of Toronto–Father invaded Byzantine Empire 1080s.Expected to gain Balkans
- Bishop Adhemar Le Puy–close friend+keen supporter of pope.Representative of Pope on Crusade
- Count Steven of Blois–wife Adela deeply religious.She made him go.
- Count Hugh of Vermandois–brother of King Phillip of France.King had a dispute with Pope (Urban II) over adultery. Win back people’s favour
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2. Why were castles used as defence in crusader states?
- Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a rule for them (way of life) and papal approval
- strategically placed to contain attacks,Acted as centre of administration and military base
- Anxious to expand interests in the East,Agreements with King of Jerusalem to bring supplies
- Opposing ideals and interests from east and west, gradual weakening of authority
3. Why were military orders used as defence in crusader states?
- Melisende marries Fulk of Anjou, who clashes with nobles
- Hospitallers:Military order of fighting monks – medical function
- Formed colonies within cities.Loyalties were to own cities
- In Kingdom of Jerusalem.Near Ascalon – controlled by Fatamids –
4. How important was spiritual motivation for participants? Examples
- Siege of Jerusalem: Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded in dismantling siege tower under cover of darkness and reassembling it at a less well-defended section of the city wall, enabling crusaders to breach city’s defences.
- Close co-operation between Greeks and crusaders during siege of Nicaea.
- motto helped them hold out for 6 hours before they won battle against Kerbogha
- Ever since death of prophet Muhammad, there was a split in the religion
5. Why did the 1st crusade go to Jerusalem, main reasons?
- Crusaders younger sons who wouldn’t inherit family land went
- Religious Zeal,Material interests,Social motivations,Political reasons
- Reform movement, areas in France Pope Urban visited
- Pope Urban described Jerusalem as “the land of milk and honey”