The 1905 revolution

What date did the first Russian revolution begin?
Sunday the 9th of January 1905
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Where did the 1905 revolution start?
At the Tsars winter palace in St Petersburg
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What happened to cause the start of the 1905 revolution?
Bloody Sunday
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What happened on Bloody Sunday?
A group of workers marched on the Tsars palace wishing to present him with a petition. The police were called to disperse them and in turn almost a thousand demonstrators were killed.
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Who led the march on Bloody Sunday?
Father Gapon
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What did the workers petition call for?
Better working conditions, higher pay, an 8 hour working day, an end to the Russo-Japanese war and an end to forced overtime in factories.
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Was the Tsar in his winter palace on Bloody Sunday?
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Was the 1905 revolution spontaneous or planned?
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What percentage of the Russian population was made up of peasants?
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What was the population of Russia in 1905?
125 million
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What happened in 1892, 1898 and 1901 which may have caused resentment and a possible contributing factor to the 1905 revolution?
Harvest failures and famine
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How did the peasants react to the famines of 1892, 1898 and 1901?
The reacted with violence
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What were jacqueries?
Where peasants attacked government officials and destroyed government records of land holdings
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Name the four potential causes of the 1905 revolution
Social and economic problems, political causes, Bloody Sunday and the Russo-Japanese war
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What was Witte's potential role in the 1905 revolution?
Due to industrialisation under Witte many peasants had moved to the cities and thus many slums had been created where the living and working conditions were poor- causing resentment, another potential cause of the 1905 revolution.
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How did the political groups in Russia benefit from the discontent of the peasants?
It meant that the peasants were more likely to listen to them
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What did jacqueries show?
That peasant discontent did exist.
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What could be the other side to the argument about social and economic repression being the cause of the revolution?
It could be argued that the peasants were used to the repression
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Was there an elected parliament in Russia before 1905?
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Was there any form of an elected body in Russia before 1905?
Yes the zemstva.
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How many assasinations did the SR's carry out between 1901-1905?
Over 2 thousand
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What was the most extreme radical group?
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What did the exile of many revolutionaries cause?
Them to plan freely abroad and have resentment
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Why did the Russo-Japanese war occur?
Because both Russia and Japan were expanding their empires in the Far East and so came at loggerheads and conflict in China.
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When was the Russo-Japanese war?
From 1904-1905
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What was the major naval base that Russia had to surrender?
Port Arthur
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What was the most humiliating battle for Russia?
The battle of Tsushima
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What happened at the battle of Tsushima?
Russia lost over 2/3rds of their war ships
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What did the war undermine?
Support for Tsarism
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Was the war still going on throughout the revolution?
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What did the revolutionary groups use the Russo-Japanese war for?
Propaganda and to their advantage
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What did the revolutionaries use Bloody Sunday for?
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Was the protest that occurred on Bloody Sunday peaceful?
Yes and so looked badly on the Tsar
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What had Russians reffered to the Tsar as before the revolution?
Little father
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What did the Tsar try and do with surviving demonstrators?
Exile them from St. Petersburg
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What did the exile of the surviving demonstrators actually do?
Spread the word about what happened that day and caused sympathy strikes to occur
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Who partook in protests and uprisings during the 1905 revolution?
Workers, peasants, political parties and members of the armed forces.
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Why did the revolution fail?
Lack of coordination
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What was the effect of the revolution on government?
It made government paranoid
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What did workers do in response to Bloody Sunday?
They went on strike
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How many workers went on strike in response to Bloody Sunday?
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By the end of 1905 how many workers had gone on strike?
2.7 million
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Who organised the workers strikes?
The workers themselves
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How did the revolutionaries react to the workers strikes?
They were shocked as they hadn't anticipated it.
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What were Soviets and who were they set up by?
They were workers councils established to direct and lead the strikes. They were set up by the workers.
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What did the strikes do to the country?
Paralysed it
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When did the railway workers go on strike?
In October
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What did the railway strikes do to the government?
Threatened it as they could now not mobilise troops to deal with uprisings
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How did the peasants contribute to the revolution?
They carried out Jacqueries
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What did the armed forces do to contribute to the revolution?
Carried out Mutinies
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Name a famous mutiny and describe what happened
The sailors on the ship Potemkin shot dead many of their officers, took control of the ship, bomarded the port of Odessa and then sailed to the neutral country of Romania
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Would have the army ever fully turned against the tsarist regime?
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How did people become members of the St Petersburg soviet?
They had to be elected
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What created the St Petersburg soviet?
The aftermath of a general strike
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Who was the St Petersburg soviet associated with?
The Menshevik party
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Why was the St Petersburg soviet a threat?
It showed government that the workers could organise themselves in a coordinated way and challenge government
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Name a significant member of the St Petersburg soviet
Leon Trotsky
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What ended the revolution?
The forced surrender of the revolutionaries in December after they had tried to take over the city using armed uprisings
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What happened to many strikes?
They ended up turning violent
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What did the Tsar do in response to the revolution?
Issued the October Manifesto
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How did revolutionaries react to the October manifesto?
They became divided in their thoughts, some thought it was good, some saw it as the first step and some hated it.
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Name the three reasons the revolution came to an end
The loyalty of the armed forces, the lack of unity among the revolutionaries and the splitting of opposition
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What did the October manifesto promise?
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Name some of the policies on the October manifesto
That freedom of speech should be ensured, that there should be freedom of religion and everyone should have civil rights.
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What was the army's role in the end to the revolution?
They arrested thousands of revolutionaries
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Who crushed revolutionary opposition?
The police and the armed forces
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What did the government do in October 1905?
Began to reassert its authority
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What political group did the government support?
The Union of the Russian People who were supportive of the tsarist regime
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What political group were the Union of the Russian People affiliated with?
The black hundreds
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Who were the black hundreds and what did they do?
They were a pro-government group who hunted down revolutionaries and killed them
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What was the problem with the revolutionary groups in the revolution?
They were divided in aims and unorganised
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What did the spontaneity of the uprisings mean?
That the government was never overwhelmed, it could simply suppress the uprisings one by one
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What did the Tsar pass in 1906?
The fundamental laws
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What was the fundamental law?
The laws that carried out the proposed reforms stated in the October Manifesto
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What did the fundamental law create?
A national parliament
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Was the parliament elected?
The lower house (Duma) was elected
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What did article 87 of the fundamental law do?
Gave the tsar the authority to govern by decree thus ignoring parliament
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Could the tsar choose his parliament?
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Were the revolutionaries happy with the fundamental laws?
No, they thought it fell short of their demands
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How long did the Duma last for?
73 days before the tsar used his powers to dissolve it
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What was wrong with the first two dumas according to the Tsar?
They contained too many liberals and people who wanted too many reforms
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What did the Tsar do to try and improve the make up of the duma?
Ensured that only the wealthy could vote
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where did the 1905 revolution start?


At the Tsars winter palace in St Petersburg

Card 3


What happened to cause the start of the 1905 revolution?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What happened on Bloody Sunday?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who led the march on Bloody Sunday?


Preview of the front of card 5
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