The whole of the Roaring 20s (AQA History B)

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Name one of the three movie actors from the 20s
Charlie Chaplin, Rudolf Valentino, Mary Pickford
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What was the name of the first "talkie"?
The Jazz Singer (starring Al Johnson)
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What was the name of the first two colour film?
The Toll Of The Sea (1922)
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When were films produced in Three Colour Technicolour?
After 1932
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When was Mickey Mouse created?
1928
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How many movie tickets were sold each week by 1930?
100 Million
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Which two companies produced hundreds of films each year?
United Artists , MGM
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What did films teach people?
New fashions E.g. Smoking and new ways to behave
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Who was an inspiration to many young girls?
It Girl, Clara Bow
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Where was jazz music first played and by who?
New Orleans by black musicians such as Louis Armstrong and Jelly Roll
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What forced black musicians out of the clubs and where did they go?
Racism, The night clubs of New york and Chicago
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What made jazz music available in peoples homes?
The radio and the phonograph (record player)
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When was the first jazz record released and who by?
In 1917 by the Dixieland Jazz Band
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What were illegal bars called?
Speakeasies
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Why did jazz music become popular amongst youngsters?
Because it was played in the Speakeasies by black musicians, it was seen as wild and exciting.
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How did jazz music contribute to the social development of the age?
People wore baggy trousers and short skirts, danced wildly and a new kind of convention of free poetry was 'jazz poetry'
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Name two 'jazz poets'
Ts Elliot and Ee Cummings
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What was jazz music part of?
The Harlem Renaissance and the growth of Black Pride
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What was the Charleston?
A fast dance developed in Black communities which was adopted by the Flappers who danced it alone to challenge the Dry's
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Who were the Dry's?
people who disagreed with clubbing
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Who were Joan Crawford and Ginger Rodgers?
Actresses who won Charleston competitions
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What was the 'Black bottom Stomp'?
A Dance that was first recorded by Jelly Roll and named after Black Bottom, a black neighbourhood in Detroit. After 1926 it became the most popular dance
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What did many dances do to Americans who thought they were Immortal?
Scandalise them
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Why did many women work?
Because they wanted equality and took over the jobs traditionally reserved for men
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How much did percentage of working women rise between 1920-1929?
The percentage rose by 25%
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What did many women do for jobs?
Secretary or Teacher
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What was the name of the ammendment that gave women the right to vote?
19th Ammendment
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What was the Womans Joint Cingressional Committee? (WJCC)
The committee that was formed by the former Sufferage Campaigners
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How was the WJCC Successful?
The Maternity and Infancy Act (1922), Equal Nationality Rights for Married Women (1922) and The CHild Labour Ammendment (1925)
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Who were the Flappers?
Young women who dumped the old restrictive fashions in favour of Short Skirts, Short Hair and the Flat Chested 'garconne' Look. Many wore mens clothing. They Smoked, Drank, Used make-up, Played Tennis and danced wildly in jazz clubs.
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What were the disadvantages for working women?
They were in low paid jobs, being paid less than men for doing the same job. Many worked for free at the farm or stayed at home (housewife)
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How many women were working by 1930?
10 Million, which was only one quarter of women aged 15+
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What were the disadvantages of the vote for women?
Exceptions such as Alice Paul and Florence Kelly and Few suffrage campaigners went into politics. The rest gave up and became housewifes
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What were the disadvantages of the Flappers?
They scandalised many Americans.
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What was the Anti-Flirt Association?
The group of middle aged women who persuaded young Americans to behave decently.
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What happened to many girls in Rural America?
They still behaved decently and got married and had children.
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Why was there Hostility to Immigrants?
Because too many people from Eastern European countries who were uneducated and very poor wanted to escape to the USA the most.
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What was the Red Scare?
The belief that many of the immigrants coming in were communists,socialists and anarchists
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Which laws did the American Governemnt refuse to pass?
Laws that banned Lynchings or giving black Americans the vote
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What were Lynchings
The Klu Klux Klan's word for the hanging of black criminals
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What were the Jim Crow Laws?
The laws passed in the Southern states which prevented black Americans from mixing wih whites, denied them equality of education, civil rights & voting
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Who were the KKK?
The Ku Klux Klan. An organisation tomaintain WASP's supremacy.
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Who were the WASP's?
White Anglo Saxon Protestants
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How many members did the KKK have by 1925?
5 million
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Who supported the KKK?
Poor whites who didnt want to be qual & feared their jobs being takes but many were rich and racist.
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What did the KKK wear?
White sheets with hoods and marched with burning corsses.
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What was the KKK's secret language and rule book?
Klonversations and Kloran
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What did the KKK do?
Attack, Kill and torture the blacks, Jews, Catholics and 'Immortals' such as alcoholics
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What happened to black people even in the North?
They ended up with the low paid menial jobs such as: Janitors, Bootblacks (shoe shiners) Cooks, Houseboys, Baggage Handlers, Waiters, Doormen, Dishwashers and Washroom Attendants.
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What did the whites in Chicago do in 1919?
Rampage through black neighbourhoods after a drowning black man clinging to a log had drifted into a whites only swimming area.
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Who were black role models?
Jesse Owens (sprinter), Jackie Robinson (baseball) and Josephine Baker (dancer)
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What was the Harlem Renaissance?
The cultural flowering of New York black neighbourhood Harlem. It was based on jazz but also excellent black architects, novellists,poets and painters.
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What did many black people believe in?
'Artistic Reaction)- winning equality by proving they were equal
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How did the blacks create a 'New Identity'?
In 1925 Alain Locke wrote 'The New *****' who had to smash the old image of 'uncle Tom' and 'Sambo'. He had to 'uplift' the race& fight for equality. There were black newspapers and magazines. Time when the phraise 'black is beautiful' came about
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What was the NAACP?
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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What did the NAACP do?
They were set up in 1909. They campaigned for civil rights.
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How many black Americans migrated from South to North?
One and a half million. Many ended upin low paid jobs, some formed new black middle class, educated at university.
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What was Prohibition?
The ban of Alcohol in America 1920-1933
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Why did Prohibition fail?
DAMAGE - Drinking Continued, Available, Made criminals of ordinary people, Adverse affects, Gangsterism, End
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How was Prohibition a success?
ALE - Alcohol destroyed, Legacy, Elliot Ness and he untouchables
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What did the Gangs run?
Speakeasies, Bootlegging (hiding alcohol in knee length boots) Protection Rackets, Prostitution and Drug running.
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Who did the gangs bribe?
Trade union leaders, Police, Lawyers, Judges and even Senators
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Who was the Most famous Gangster?
Al Capone, who earned $100,000 A YEAR from beer sales alone. He ran a private army of more than 700 mobsters & is thought o have murdered over 200 apponents
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Why did gangs fight?
They wanted control of Territory- 'St Valentines Day Massacre'-1929 when the 'torpedos' from Capones gang shot dear 7 members of Bugs Moran's gang.
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What was the Fordney Mcumber Tarriff? (FMT)
A law that raised American tariffs on many imported goods in order to protect factories and farms
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What is a Scientific Tarriff?
It links tarriffs to wages in the counry of export.
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What is the 'American Selling Price'?
It links the prices of American goods to tarriffs, not the cost of production.
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What did the FMT do in the long run?
Damage the economy, because oher countries retaliated by putting up their duties and stopping American exports.
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What was the 1917 Immigration Law?
It required all immigrats to prove they could read English, Banned all immigration from Asia and charged and $8 fee.
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what was the 1921 Emergency Quota Act?
It stated that the number of immigrants from the 'Eastern Hemisphere' could not be more than 3% of the number already in America in 1910. It set the maximum number of immigrants in any year at 357,000
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What was the 1924 Johnson-Reed Act?
The maximum number of immigrants in any year at 154,000. Quota from Eastern hemisphere reduced to 2% of those already in America in 1890
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What was Americanization?
The influence that America had on other countries
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What was the FBN?
The Federal Bureau of Naturalisation
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What did the FBN do?
Organise naturalisation proceedings and patriotic 'Americanization Day' rallies and 4th July Celebrations
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What was the FBE and what did they do?
The Federal Bureau of Education - Organised courses on politics and democracy to prepare immigrants for the 'citizenship test'
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Who were Sacco and Vanzetti?
Italian anarchist Immigrants in America who were convicted of armed robbery and murder in 1920
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What happened to Sacco and Vanzetti?
They were executed in 1927 even though their defence produced 107 witnesses to pove that they were elsewhere. In 1925 the Actual murderer came forward but the jury didnt believe he witnesses because they were all Italian Immigrants.
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What happened between 1922 and 1929 that helped the economy?
The Annual Gross national Product of the USA increased by 40%. The average income per head increased by 27%
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What was consumer boom?
The growth of personal posessions e.g. Woolworths, Hire Purchase and Commercial Travellers.
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What does ISUCCESS stand for?
Innovation in Production Methods, Synthetics, Upsurge in Car Ownership, Consumer Druables/ Electrical Goods, Communications Revolution, Entertainment Industry, Stock Market, Skyscrapers, Highways and Urban Development
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How many Ford model T's were produced by 1927?
15 Million
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How many car owners were there?
23 Million
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What were the 'new' synthetics?
Bakelite, Cellophane, Nylon and Chemicals
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What 'new' Consumer Goods were there?
Fridges, washing Machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners and record players
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What was the communications revolution?
The number of telephones doubles and the number of radios increased from 60,000 to 10 million
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What was the Stock Market Boom?
Many people bought shares to make a profit.Many new businessses 'floated' on the stock market.
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What happened to the farming industry?
Machinery= Overproduction= rapidly falling prices= national income of farmers only 40% of national average wage. 1924 600,000 farmers went bankrupt
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What happened to low wage workers?
The unskilled, Casual or 2 Million unemployed didnt share in prosperity. 40% if workers were below the poverty line.
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What happened to old industries?
Overproduction of coal= mine clouse= falling wages. Miners wage barely 1/3 of the national average income.
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What happened to the poor balck Americans?
1 million farm workers lost their jobs, towns in the north= lowest paid. they would sleepin shifts at shelters if they were homeless and held 'rent parties' to gather enough money to live in a small flat.
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What were cartels, trusts and manopolies?
They fixed the market and tried to keep prices high & wages low
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What were trade problems?
High tarriffs= retaliation= hard to export food abroad & abroard good in America. farmers hit hard.
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What was the stock exchange?
Wall st 'overheating'= over confident= more shares= even imaginary shares= lones up to 90% to buy shares= disaster.
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Why did Wall st overheat?
Between 1924-29 the value of shares rose 5 times. Share prices went way beyond what firms said hey were worth.
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What was speculation?
600,000 speculators by 1929 buying on the margain with loans and some firms floated shares.
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What was corruption?
The Senate Committee set up to investiage found corruption and 'insider trading' between banks and brokers.
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Why did speculators panic?
They lost confidence in MarcH and again in September- banks mass bought shares to help the market.
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What happened on 24th October 1929?
nearly 13 Million shares were sold in panic and prices crashed. banks tried o buy again but by Monday they were heavy selling & realised it was hopeless.
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What happened on 29th October 1929?
Wall st crashed when 16 Million shares were sold.
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What were the explainations at the time of the crash?
Hoover argued that it was the European financial collpase of 1931 and John Maynard Keynes said it was a drop in spending as people were saving too much.
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What as the Bull Market?
It was financed by loans. In 1929 broker's loans amounted to $8.5 billion.
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How many companies controlled half of the US industry?
200
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What was the Us federal reserve?
The american 'Bank of England'
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What was the Smoot-Hawley Tarriff?
The governemt tarrif passed in fear for the US economy which 6 countries passed reatailatory Tarriffs in response and worldtrade slumped. This damaged the US Industry.
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What was the maldistribution of wealth?
There were extremily rich people and estremily poor people with no inbetween. The top 5% owned 1/5 of the wealth and 40% lived in poverty.
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What was the Cycle of Depression?
Banks & Companies failed = people out of work= less money to spend = more companies bankrupt= more people unemployed.
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How many people were admitted to hospital suffering from starvation in 1931?
238
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By how much did international trade slump in 1932?
From $10bn in 1929 to only $3bn in 1932
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Howmany banks went bankrupt between 1929 and 1932
5000 including Bank of America
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How many Americans had their homes reposessed in 1923?
1/4 of a million
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How many farmers lost their farms?
1/5 of all farmers
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How many companies went out of business in 1932?
20000
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By 1933 How much % had industrial production fallen by?
40%
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By how much had prices and wages fallen in 1933?
50%- prices 60%- wages
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By how much had share prices fallen in 1933?
80%
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How many americans were unemployed by 1933?
25%
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Where was the depression particularly fierce?
In aggriculture - the 'dust bowl' was caused by over farming. Many farmers couldn't afford their mortgage repayments.
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What did many 'oakies' and 'arkies' have to do?
Go fruit picking in California for a little bit of money
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What were many unemployed Americans reduced to?
Picking over rubbish dumps or begging.
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How many people committed suicide in 1932?
23000
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What were 'Hoovervilles'?
Shanty towns made for the homeless.
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Who were the hobos?
They travelled around looking for jobs, usually riding illegaly on freight tracks.
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What did Hoover believe in?
'Rugged Individualism' The idea that it wasn't in the governments interest to interfere with business
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What made the depression worse?
The 1930 Smoot-Hawley Act raised tarriffs, 1931 The fed raised interest rates, 1932 the governemt raised taxes.
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What was 'Hoover Leather' and 'Hoover balnkets'?
'Hoover leather' was cardboard used to repair shoes and 'Hoover blankets' were old newspapers used as blankets to keep warm.
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What violence was there as a reslut of the depression?
Many protest marches and riots. Some banks trying to re-posess farms to which local farmers banded together and drove them off with pitch forks.
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What was the 'bonus army'?
A group of 20000 unemployed ex soldiers who set up a Hooverville in Washington to ask for their war pension early. Hoover set the army on them, who drove them away with guns and tear-gas.
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When did Hoover cut taxes and form the 'Committee for unemployment relief'?
1930
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How much did Hoover give to the state government in 1931 to set up shemes to provide work?
$400 million
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What was the Davis-Bacon Act?
It encouraged firms to maintain high wages by requiring 'prevailing' wages to be paid on federal construction contracts
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How much did Hoover give to the Emergency Relief Act?
$300 million to pay the unemployed.
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How much did Hoover give away in loans to help businessmen?
$1500 Million
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Which two acts protected trade unions and banks?
The Norris-la Guardia Act and the Glass-Stegall Act
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Which industries thrived in the depression?
New industries, continued to expand and pay high wages
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Why were the employed better off?
Because prices were much lower
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Which areas of the economy thrived?
The empire state building was finished in 1931 and the San Fransisco Golden Gate Bridge was started in 1932
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Card 3

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Card 4

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When were films produced in Three Colour Technicolour?

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Card 5

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