The Water Cycle and Water Insecurity Case Studies

What case study is associated with a flash flood?
Boscastle 2004
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What were the causes of the Boscastle flood?
Heavy rainfall (89mm in an hour), steep valleys surrounding the river, urbanisation causing the river capacity to decrease to 30km^2.
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What were the impacts of the Boscastle flood?
50 cars swept away, millions of pounds worth of building and house damage, £250,000 worth of damage to infrastructure, 1000 people affected.
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How was the flood dealt with?
There were more emergency services available, such as 3 helicopters, due to quicker and more advanced communication. The flood was also during the day so there were less casualties.
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What case studies can be used for water drought?
Australia.
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What are some of the reasons for the Australia drought?
In 2006, annual rainfall fell to 40-60% below the average. El Nino occurred causing Australia to experience high pressure systems.
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What are some of the impacts of the Australia drought?
People in rural areas greatly lack water and cannot farm. The rural suicide rate grew by 9%. Farming GDP fell by 30% causing 1% decrease in overall GDP.
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Further impacts of Australian drought.
Water quality declined as rivers, dams and lakes are depleted. Mass soil degradation. HEP sources abandoned and fossil fuels used instead.
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How has the drought been dealt with?
Legislation techniques were implemented (no car washes, only 4-minute long showers). The government increased spending to provide water, such as smart water. Improved irrigation to reduce water waste.
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What river regimes are looked at when discussing river discharge?
The Amazon(Brazil), Indus(China) and Yukon rivers.
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What is the correlation of storm hydro-graph for the river Indus?
Increased water in summer due to melting ice and permafrost. The geology is impermeable so increased surface runoff. However, the part in india won't receive precipitation due to the high pressure zone.
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What is the correlation of storm hydro-graph for the Amazon river?
Large inputs of water all year due to high precipitation because its located on the equator. Large amounts of soil so through flow and saturated overland flow occurs. High levels of deforestation so interception decreases.
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What is the correlation of storm hydro-graph for the Yukon river?
High levels of permafrost melting during the summer months. 39% increased inflows due to global warming. Total ice area fell by 22%.
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What case studies relate to water insecurity?
China, California(Colorado River), Egypt(river Nile) and Australia.
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How is there water insecurity and conflict with the river Nile?
It is shared with 11 countries. 1929, Egypt gained full control over construction on the river due to colonisation by the UK. 1999, the Nile Basin initiative created to solve conflict. 2010, all except Egypt signed CFA agreement. Ethiopia built a dam
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Why is there water conflict and insecurity with the river Nile?
Located in a high pressure zone, low levels of precipitation. Growing populations. Most cannot afford to import high quantities of water. Egypt has high levels of tourism.
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What are the reasons for China's water insecurity?
50% population in the North, 2/3 of farmland but only 20% water. Increased agriculture, populations & industry. Urbanisation. Large levels of grey water that cannot be used due to high levels of pollution.
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How are China overcoming their water insecurity?
The South to North China water diversion project. South China are transferring $62 billion worth of water (45 billion cubic metres) to the north through river extraction.
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What are some advantages of the China water diversion project?
Benefitting 53 million people in the north. Enables increasing urban growth. 600,000 jobs created. Solves water shortage/deficit.
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What are some disadvantages of the China water diversion project?
More than 300,000 people displaced for construction. 1.27 million relocated overall. Very expensive $80 billion. Caused 370km^2 land submersion. Aquatic life population fell. Water is too expensive for farmers.
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What are some case studies for water management?
China and Singapore.
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How have the government in Singapore managed water consumption ?
Educating the population (15 litres a day fall in water consumption 2015), subsidised poorer citizens who can't afford water, reduced leakage by 5%, created reservoirs (marina bay supplies 10% of freshwater), NEWater project (water waste is reused).
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What are the drawbacks of the management in Singapore?
Creating reservoirs has increased precipitation which could lead to a storm or flood. The subsidies could be spent in improving the economy. Can be costly to create reservoirs and manage leakages.
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Who are the winners from the Colorado river?
Colorado (97% of the river in Colorado, own 52% of upper basin). California (49% of lower basin), Arizona (32% of lower basin), Indigenous people own 5%.
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Who are the losers from the Colorado river?
Mexico because they own 16% of the lower basin but 90% of the water is extracted before it reaches Mexico.
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Why is there water insecurity in California?
Increased population - 39.5million, low precipitation levels, high urbanisation and tourism, 181 gallons per person per day, lots of hotels and golf courses.
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What are the impacts of the California water insecurity?
Grass has turned brown in many areas, reduction in species diversification, increased forest fires, insect infestation because of 40 million dying trees.
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How are Israel managing their water?
Smart irrigation (reduces waste), sewage recycling (65% of crops produced this way), virtual water (imported water, 50 million tonnes from Turkey per year).
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What is the Israel desalination project?
Water is taken directly from the Mediterranean sea and desalinated. Reliable water. Aim to provide 70% of water.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Israel desalination project?
Provides 600 tonnes of portable water per hour. Supplies needs. However, costs over $100 million and releases CO2 emissions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were the causes of the Boscastle flood?

Back

Heavy rainfall (89mm in an hour), steep valleys surrounding the river, urbanisation causing the river capacity to decrease to 30km^2.

Card 3

Front

What were the impacts of the Boscastle flood?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How was the flood dealt with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What case studies can be used for water drought?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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