The Water Cycle

  • Created by: RhodesN
  • Created on: 25-05-18 10:41
what is the hydrosphere?
water stored in oceans that influences the water cycle
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how much evaporated water does the ocean supply into the water cycle?
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what is the atmosphere?
it is the main vector for moving water around the globe
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how does water get into the atmosphere?
evaporation and transpiration
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what does cooler temps do to water vapour rising into atmosphere?
it condenses and forms clouds
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what is transpiration?
when water evaporates from plants
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what is sublimation?
water changes from a solid (ice or snow) to a gas, bypassing liquid stage
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what is the cryosphere?
water stored in the form of ice caps, ice shelves, sea ice and glaciers
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what is a ice shelf??
floating extension of land ice
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what is the lithosere?
it is land based storage of water
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what are the two land based storage?
freshwater storage and groundwater storage
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what is freshwater stroage?
water courses of all sizes, large rivers to small ponds or streams, lakes and reservoirs
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what is groundwater storage?
precipitation that falls into the land and infiltrates deep into ground
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what is an aquifer?
a permeable rock that can store and transmit water
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what are some factors driving the water cycle?
evaporation, evapotranspiration, condensation and cloud formation, precipitation, sublimation and de-sublimation and snow melt
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what is evaporation?
water changes from liquid to gas vapour
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what is evapotranspiration?
evaporation from ground and transpiration from plants through stomata in leaves
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what is condensation?
water vapour in air is changed to liquid
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how does condensation form clouds?
saturated air cools, usually because of rise in altitude, below dew point, froming clouds.
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what is the dew point>?
temp from air at a atmospheric pressure becomes fully saturated
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what is precipitation?
water released from clouds in form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow or hail
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what is de-sublimation?
when water vapour changes straight into ice
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what is snow melt?
melting snow and ice from high altitudes that can contribute to movement of water
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what is a drainage basin?
the catchment area from which a river system obtains its supplies of water
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drainage basins can be an open system, what does this mean?
there are inputs (precipitation) and outputs (evaporation), stores (vegetation) and transfers
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what is a watershed?
the imaginary line that separates adjacent drainage basins
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what is groundwater store?
water that collects underground in pore spaces in rock
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what is groundwater flow?
movement of water underground
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what is infiltration?
movement of water from the surface downwards into soil
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what is interception?
precipitation prevented from reaching soil by leaves and branches
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what is surface runoff (overland flow)?
movement of water over saturated or impermeable land
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what is percolation?
downward movement of water from soil to rock below or within rock
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what is runoff?
all water flowing out of a drainage basin
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what is stemflow?
water that runs down stems and trunks of plants and trees to ground
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what is throughfall?
water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm
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what is throughflow?
water that moves downslope through soil
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the amount of runoff of a river is measured by what?
its discharge
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what is the formula for discharge?
average velocity x cross sectional area = discharge
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what is the formula for water balance?
P (precipitation) = E (evapotranspiration) + Q (runoff) + ^S (soil and groundwater)
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how is a water surplus created?
when precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration
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what is a hydrograph?
a graph of river discharge against time
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what is a flood (storm) hydrograph?
graph of river discharge leading up to a storm or rainfall event - its runoff variation
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why is a hydrograph important?
can help predict how a river might respond to a rainstorm, which can help to manage the river
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what is a hydrograph called when water is transferred to a river quickly?
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what is meant by flood/ing?
a body of water that rises to overflow land that is not normally submerged
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what are natural variables that can affect the shape on a hydrograph?
antecedent rainfall, snowmelt, vegetation, basin shape, slope, geology
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what is antecedent rainfall? (in relation to hydrograph)
rain falling on a ground surface that is already saturated producing a steep rising limb and shorter lag time
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what is snowmelt?(in relation to hydrograph)
large amounts of water released rapidly increasing discharge, especially if ground is frozen, reducing infiltration
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what is vegetation?(in relation to hydrograph)
trees have more leaves so interception is higher, discharge is lower and lag time is longer
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what is meant by basin shape? (in relation to hydrograph)
water takes less time to reach the river in a circular drainage basin than in an elongated one
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what is a slope? (in relation to hydrograph)
water gets to river more quickly than in an area of gentle slopes
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what is geology? (in relation to hydrograph)
permeable rocks allow percolation. impermeable rock reduces percolation, increases overland flow, creating greater discharge and shorter lag times
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what are natural variations affecting change in water cycle? and explain
flash floods, single event floods, multiple event floods and seasonal floods
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what are human impacts affecting change in the water cycle? and explain
land use change: deforestation, farming practices, water abstraction, and climate change
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Card 2


how much evaporated water does the ocean supply into the water cycle?



Card 3


what is the atmosphere?


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Card 4


how does water get into the atmosphere?


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Card 5


what does cooler temps do to water vapour rising into atmosphere?


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