The Triumph of Elizabeth - Defending against Internal Enemies (1571 - 1588)

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Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (1)
Parliament more powerful in 1559 than 1529, unprecedented passing/repealing of religious change in religion since 1534. Commons growing, more unwieldy, Lords without abbots, shrinking, though more powerful as titled aristocracy/bishops.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (2)
Acted as important-safety valve, as agent of political consensus in times of crisis/change. Dissolution of Monasteries meant layman clear majority in House, Elizabethan peers (and MPs) better educated than predecessors, some ministers and served PC.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (3)
Opposition in Commons orchestrated/encouraged by members of Lords/PC who wanted pressure on Elizabeth. 'Men of business'/political clients used to raise ideas in Commons (Thomas Norton represented patron Burghley), Commons more powerful/combative.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (4)
Puritans/other Protestants vociferous about key issues affecting religion (e.g. succession/marriage Elizabeth, destruction of Norfolk/Mary QoS, need for reform of church). Puritanism gave confidence to criticise government policy/Queen.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (5)
Sir Peter Wentworth ideas that parliament was there to represent interests of common wealth rather than rubber-stamp government decisions/grant money.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Relations (1)
Most MPs/Lords wanted quick marriage to provide Protestant heir, didn't understand Elizabeth's unwillingness to marry. 1562: near death (smallpox) emphasised need for heir.
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Elizabeth and Parliament: Relations (2)
Parliament put 'promise to marry' in preamble of subsidy bill in 1566, Burghley thought to be behind. Demand for execution of Norfolk, Elizabeth resists but after Ridolfi plot, had to give way to pressure to save Mary, QoS.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Who were the Puritans? (1)
Not coherent movement, but voice of protest, no common core of beliefs but Puritanism embraced wide spectrum of beliefs/ideas - were Protestants unhappy with Elizabethan Religious Settlement, wanted it altered.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Who were the Puritans? (2)
Most fiercely opposed to RCC, believed Pope was Anti-Christ, Catholics were heretics and traitors, wanted Church to be stricter on Catholics with penalties imposed on those who didn't attend church/conducted Catholic services in chapels.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Who were the Puritans? (3)
Wanted CofE to be cleansed of 'popish remnants'. Conflict between Parker/Puritans on wearing of clerical vestments. Many wanted new PB with less ambiguous interpretation of doctrine of mass. Wanted power moved from Bishops to pastors/congregations.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Who were the Puritans? (4)
Some wanted abolition of episcopacy (government of Church by bishops) as used by CC, wanted a Presbyterian form of Church government (as advocated by John Calvin in Geneva).
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Who were the Puritans? (5)
Wanted to improve quality/education of lower clergy, increase pay to put end to abuses (e.g. absenteeism, pluralism). Most wanted emphasis on 'preaching the word', and relaxation on licensing of preachers.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: How the Puritans tried to change the Settlement (1)
Vestiarian Controversy, Puritan ministers refused to conform to dress code, Parker issued 1565 'Book of Advertisements, summoned London clergy to Lambeth Palace, demanded clergy to conform / face suspension - majority conformed.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: How the Puritans tried to change the Settlement (2)
Attempt to reform via parliament. 1566: 6 bills ( of puritan reforms) suggested, not considered. 1571: attempt to reintroduce 6 bills. Walter Strickland introduces Bill in Commons for PB reform - no kneeling at communion, surplices, church courts.
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The Puritan Challenge to the Church Settlement: Government response to Puritans
Parker made clergy conform, loyal to Elizabeth, Archbishop from 1559 - 1575. Attempts to reform PB dismissed by Elizabeth. 1572: announced no new religious bills to be introduced without approval of bishops.
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The Catholic Challenge
Catholic threat more serious than Puritan. Most English Catholics were moderates wanting Catholic Restoration in time, more extreme Catholics plotted replacement of Elizabeth with Mary, QoS.
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The Catholic Challenge: The Strength of Catholicism in 1559 (1)
Mary restored CC during 5-year-reign, no serious opposition/threat by death (1558). Church under Henry retained Catholic theology/liturgy. Edwardian Reformation (1547 - 1553) short-lived to bring Protestant doctrine.
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The Catholic Challenge: The Strength of Catholicism in 1559 (2)
Most gentry/half nobility continued as Catholics after Settlement passed, late 1580's, 1/3 peerage Catholic. Mary's bishops resigned (bar one) rather than subscribe to Settlement, lower clergy still Catholic, unenthusiastic about Settlement.
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The Catholic Challenge: The Strength of Catholicism in 1559 (3)
North/West more Catholic - great opposition to Henrician Reformation 1536 (Pilgrimage of Grace), while Devon/Cornwall rebellion against moderate EPB in 1549. South/East more susceptible to Protestant advances.
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The Catholic Challenge: The Strength of Catholicism in 1559 (4)
Catholicism strong in rural/agrarian areas, Lancashire had more Catholics than Protestants (beginning of reign), zealous Catholics believed Mary QoS was rightful Queen (Elizabeth was ******* & mother executed by Henry). Heir until 1587: Mary QoS.
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The Catholic Challenge: Threat from radical Catholics (1)
1568 William Allen (leading English Catholic/cardinal) founded English College at Douai in Low Countries. Designed as centre for English Catholic refugees/seminary for training Catholic Clergy. Sent 450 Catholic priests to England from 1574 onwards.
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The Catholic Challenge: Threat from radical Catholics (2)
Penalties against Catholics stiffened (to cope with threat). 1571 Act: high treason to declare Elizabeth heretic. Also, high treason to bring papal bulls to England - Catholics fled abroad could be deprived of goods/income from land.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Acted as important-safety valve, as agent of political consensus in times of crisis/change. Dissolution of Monasteries meant layman clear majority in House, Elizabethan peers (and MPs) better educated than predecessors, some ministers and served PC.

Back

Elizabeth and Parliament: Lords and Commons (2)

Card 3

Front

Opposition in Commons orchestrated/encouraged by members of Lords/PC who wanted pressure on Elizabeth. 'Men of business'/political clients used to raise ideas in Commons (Thomas Norton represented patron Burghley), Commons more powerful/combative.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Puritans/other Protestants vociferous about key issues affecting religion (e.g. succession/marriage Elizabeth, destruction of Norfolk/Mary QoS, need for reform of church). Puritanism gave confidence to criticise government policy/Queen.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sir Peter Wentworth ideas that parliament was there to represent interests of common wealth rather than rubber-stamp government decisions/grant money.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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