The Triumph of Elizabeth: Britain 1547 - 1603: Defending against External Enemies

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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571
Religious difficulties intensified by interference from foreign powers - did much to underpin (support) Catholic threat.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (1)
Elizabeth's accession: Scotland officially Catholic. 1559: Mary QoS was Queen of France, strengthening 'auld alliance' which threatened England's security. Situation in Scotland reversed by onset of Scot Reformation (John Knox), removal of French.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (2)
Treaty of Berwick (Feb 1560): English gave military assistance to Scots rebels. Scot government put in hands of a council of nobles led by Earl of Arran.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (3)
Treaty of Edinburgh (July 1560): French agreed to withdraw troops from Scotland. Recognize Elizabeth as Queen. Mary of Guise (Mary QoS French mother, Regent in Scotland) died 1560.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (4)
Mary QoS returned Scotland 1561, little support, English hopes of Mary/Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester) marriage empty. Scottish internal disputes led to forced abdication/expulsion of Mary QoS (1567/1568) after death of 2nd husband, Lord Darnley.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (5)
Mary QoS kept in captivity (England) for 19 years, no significant backing for throne from France/Scotland. France torn apart by Wars of Religion, Scots leadership Presbyterian, no sympathy with Mary, governed in name of son James VI - Protestant.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with France (1)
1559: Peace of Cateau-Cambresis ends France/England war (started 1557), England has to acknowledge loss of Calais.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with France (2)
1562/3:English forces occupy port Le Havre, helping French Protestants (Huguenots) under Conde in war against Catholic forces. English surrender Le Havre (outbreak of plague), hopes of gaining French port (replace/bargain Calais) dashed.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with France (3)
1564: Treaty of Troyes (France/England) ends war with France.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with France (4)
1570: Elizabeth puts forward idea of marriage to Henry, Duke of Anjou, brother of Charles IX. Averts French hostility (especially as France occupied with civil war/concerns about Spain's growing power)
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (1)
England more concerned with France/Scotland. Original relations civil - Philip II married to Mary, wanted to maintain alliance. 1558: Spanish war with France, worried about French intervention in Low Countries (owned by Spain, border France).
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (2)
Philip offers marriage; politely declined. Relations deteriorate to open warfare (1585), attributed to Elizabeth's paranoia than Spanish aggression.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (3)
1563-4: trade war between England/Low Countries sparked by increased taxes on trade imposed by Queen Mary. Ended 1564 when Philip sacked Spanish governor in Low Countries - Cardinal Granvelle.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (4)
1567: Fears as Duke of Alva sent to Low Countries to quiet revolt. Army of 50,000 just over channel. 1568 conflict (Spain/England) in Caribbean. English ships destroyed at San Juan de Ullua.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (5)
1568: Elizabeth took charge Spanish silver fleet (forced shelter at Plymouth enroute to pay Spanish troops in Low Countries). Mutiny for lack of pay; Alva retaliated by seizing English ships in LC ports. New trade war until Bristol Treaty 1574.
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Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Spain (6)
1571: Spanish ambassador de Spes involved in Ridolfi plot but Alva refused to give plot military assistance from Low Countries.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Elizabeth's accession: Scotland officially Catholic. 1559: Mary QoS was Queen of France, strengthening 'auld alliance' which threatened England's security. Situation in Scotland reversed by onset of Scot Reformation (John Knox), removal of French.

Back

Foreign Relations 1559 - 1571: Relations with Scotland (1)

Card 3

Front

Treaty of Berwick (Feb 1560): English gave military assistance to Scots rebels. Scot government put in hands of a council of nobles led by Earl of Arran.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Treaty of Edinburgh (July 1560): French agreed to withdraw troops from Scotland. Recognize Elizabeth as Queen. Mary of Guise (Mary QoS French mother, Regent in Scotland) died 1560.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mary QoS returned Scotland 1561, little support, English hopes of Mary/Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester) marriage empty. Scottish internal disputes led to forced abdication/expulsion of Mary QoS (1567/1568) after death of 2nd husband, Lord Darnley.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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