The Triumph of Elizabeth- Card set 1

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When did Henry the eighth die?
1547
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What was the order of succession?
Edward VI, Mary I ,Elizabeth I
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What did Henry create in his will?
A recency council
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Who overthrew the recency council within a few weeks?
Edward Seymour
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What relation was Edward Seymour, to King Edward VI?
He was his Uncle
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What did Edward Seymour become?
The Protectorate
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What title/s did Edward Seymour also have?
Viscount Beauchamp (1536), Earl of Hertford (1536) and Duke of Somerset
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Name a success of Somersets foreign policy.
A win at the Battle of Pinkie against the Scots in 1547
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When Somerset debased the coinage , how much did he raise?
£537,000
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What did the Book of Common prayer 1549 establish?
A single form of worship and translated services into English
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Who wrote the Book of Common prayer 1549?
Archbishop Cranmer
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What year was the dissolution of the Chantires?
1547
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In what year did denunciation of images occur in London and injunction issued?
1547
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How many rebellions were there in 1549?
2 - the Ketts and Western
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What the primary reason for the Kett's rebellion?
Enclosures
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What the primary reason for the Western rebellion?
Religion, it is sometimes called the prayer book rebellion
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What did the rebels want?
Wished to reverse government policy
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What was the primary reason for the Kett's rebellion?
Mainly enclousres, resentment of the abuse by local officials and landowners was another cause
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What did the rebels want?
Wanted the Duke of Somerset to honour his proclamation against enclosures act
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What was Somerset like as a person?
Arrogant and operated in a dictatorial manner, he also removed people such as Southampton from the council if they apposed him
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When Northumberland came to power he did what?
Made no attempts to re-establish a protectorate
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What was the Duke of Northumberland also referred to as?
John Dudley, Viscount Lisle and Earl of Warwick
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What did Northumberland preside as?
Lord President of the council
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Many of Northumberland's supporters had been what during his 1st coup for power?
Conservatives
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Who was his 2nd coup directed at?
The removal of key conservatives- some of whom had helped him to secure power
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Name 2 conservative who were ejected from the council.
Southampton and Arundel
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On what date was Warwick promoted to Duke of Northumberland?
October 1551
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What is Somerset historically referred to by historians?
The good Duke and Northumberland the bad
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What is historian Dale Hoak's viewpoint of Northumberland?
That Nortumberland was no more unscrupulous than any other leading Tudor politician . He also claimed that he was '1 of the most remarkable able governors of any European state during the 16th cen'
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William Cecil faired well under both of the Dukes, how so?
He prospered as 1 of somerset's men and then was able to transform him self after a brief period of imprisonment, into Northumberland's key administrator
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What did Somerset try to do?
Recover his old position but was outwitted by Northumberland
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After this what happened to Northumberland's character?
He started to behave in precisely the same way as Somerset had before he was removed
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Name the successes of Northumberland
He achieved a measure of stability in the national finances. Ended the wars with Scotland and France. Increased revenue. Ordered a commission which discovered the faults in royal financial admin (changes did not come into place until M)
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The return of Boulogne to France brought what amount of money to the crown?
£133,333
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What form of Protestantism do Loades and MacCulloch belive Northumberland was leaning towards?
Evangelical since about 1532
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When did Northumberland lurch to radicalism ?
1552
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How long did Edward reign for?
1547-53 (6 years)
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What was Northumberland's Two fold strategy to the Church?
1. he wished to continue the Protestant reforms started by Somerset. 2. he sought to plunder some its wealth
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What did King Edward persevere himself to be?
The new Josiah- the young king who would destroy idolatry and the remnants of Catholicism
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How does Eamon Duffy describe religion under Northumberland?
' A flood tide of radicalsim'
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When was the policy on the removal of alters confirmed in the PC?
November 1550
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Which Bishop refused to order the removal of alters in his diocese?
Bishop of Chichester
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The 1552 Act of uniformity, required the publication of a new what?
Book of common prayer
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What were the key changes in the 1552 Book of Common prayer?
Removal of remaining conservative ceremonies. Rewriting of baptism, confirmation and burial services. Radical reform of commonion sefive including the replacemetn of the wafer with bread. Ban on the use of Popish vestments. Restriction on church m
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key changes continued
usic
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Finish this sentence, 'According to Haigh the new book ....
'broke decisively with the past'
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When were the 42 articles issued and by who?
1552 by Archbishop Cranmer
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What did the 42 articles do?
Defined the essentials of the faith of the COE.
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The death of the King, mean that the 42 articles were never what?
implemented
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The 39 articles were what?
A revised and more moderate version of the 42 articles, adopted during the reign of Elizabeth
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What 2 diocese were combined as a result of the plundering of property from the bishoprics?
Gloucester and Worcester
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What fraction of the Worcester estate went to the Crown?
2/3
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By 1547 what percentage of Londoners were Protestant?
20%
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In what area of England did Catholic survivalism remain?
The North, especially Lancashire , the Midland counties and the far south west
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By 1549 what percentage of Kentish wills had a recognisable protestant formula?
8%
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What about in Sulfolk?
27%
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By 1550 how many traceable wills were Protestant in York?
2
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According to Haigh, what percentage of people left money to the church in their will in the north in 1546 compared to Ed's reign?
1546- 70% Ed's 32%
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In January 1553 the Crown order the confiscation of what?
Church plate
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When was Edward taken ill?
Feb 1553
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Who does Hoak attribute the devise to?
Edward himself, as he was anxious not to let the crown fall either of this two sister whom he considered illegitimate
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How did Edward name as his successor?
Lady Jane Grey
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Who and when did Lady Jane Grey marry?
Northumberland's son, Guildford Dudley 1553
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When were Mary and Elizabeth declared illegitimate and by what?
1553, after the marriage of Lady Jane Grey, letters patent
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What was the legal issue of this succession?
Parliament needed to be called so that the Succession Act of 1544 could be set aside
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What happened before parliament could be called?
Edward died July 1553
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When Northumberland sent a naval squadron to the Norfolk coast to prevent Mary from escaping, what did they do?
mutinied
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How was Mary greeted by the English people?
Favourably
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In what area was an alter immediately set up at the accession of Mary?
Melton Mowbrary
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How many councilors did Mary appoint during her reign?
50
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What was Mary's government riddled with?
Fractional rivalries and inefficiency
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Who were the 2 suitors for Mary's hand in marriage?
Phillip II and Edward Courtenay (Earl of Devon)
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Who supported the Earl of Devon's candidature?
Bishop Gardiner
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Who did Mary marry?
Phillip II of Spain
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When did they marry?
1554
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Was Mary's decision o marry Phillip every discussed in the council?
No
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How old was Mary at the time of the marriage?
37
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Who was Simon Renard?
an ambassador of Mary's cousin Charles V
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Who was Charles V of the holy roman empire?
Mary's cousin and Phillip II father
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A treaty was constructed in an attempt to allay fears, what did this treaty do?
Prevented the King from exercising any power within England , no foreigners were permitted to hold English office and if Mary predeceased Phillip then he would have no claim on the English crown
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What did this treaty fail to do?
Prevent a rebellion
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What was this rebellion?
The Wyatt's rebellion of 1554
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How many men did Sir Thomas Wyatt manage to raise?
3,000
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List the motives of the rebels.
1. some motivated by religion 2. xenophobia 3.decline in the local cloth industry 4. gentry who had lost office
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Why was the rebellion significant?
Showed that the religious opinions of protestants could not be ignored 2. demonstrated the extent of suspicion of Spanish marriage. 3. Lady Jane executed due to her fathers role 4. Elizabeth arrested but released
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Name the success of the rebellion
Raised & kept a large following, outmaneuvered the Duke of Norfolk and came close to securing the city of London
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What did Phillip do?
But of coming to England for marriage for several months
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What happened 1st the marriage or rebellion?
Rebellion
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Did Mary manage to get pregnant?
No
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What dispute was England drawn into as a result of Mary's marriage?
The dispute between the Habsburgs (Phillip's family) and the Valois (rulers of France)
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How was this war made worse?
By the election of a pro-french Pope Paul IV in 1555- plunged Mary into terms of considerable hostility with the Papacy
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What year did Mary repeal Edward's religious laws?
1553
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How many MP's appealed against the repeal of this law?
80
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When were marriage clergy deprived?
1553
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How many prominent Protestant clergy were deprived of their livings?
7 bishops
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When did Cardinal Pole arrive as Archbishop of Canterbury and papal legate?
1554
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When was the restoration of the heresy laws?
1555
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When did the burning of heretics begin?
1555
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How many persons went into exile?
800
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List Mary's parliaments
1st 1553. 2nd 1554. 3rd 1554-1555 4th 1555 5th 1588
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What did the 3rd Parliament do, which related to Cardinal Pole?
Reverse the Henrician Act of Attainder - which declared him guilt of treason
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When was the act of repeal passed into law?
1555
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When did Pope Julius III die?
1555
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Who succeeded him?
Anti-Spanish Paul IV
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When did the Pope withdraw Poles legitimate commission?
1557
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When did the Pope name Pole as a heretic and what did he want Pole to do?
1557 and return to Rome - Mary would not allow him to go
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Who did the Pope name as new legate?
William Peto
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What was Mary's response?
She refused to acknowledge him as having a higher status than the Archbishop of Canterbury
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When was Foxes book of Martyrs first published?
1563
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How many Protestants were burned at the stake?
289
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How many of members of the episcopate at the time of Mary's accession?
3, Archbishop Cranmer, Bishop Hooper and Ridley
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How many clergy suffered?
21, 8 were of gentry status
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How many burnings were there in London?
60
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How many in Durham?
0
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What did the burnings do?
Turn people into martyrs or the cause
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Upon recognising this what did the council try and do?
Ban servants, apprentices and the young in general from attending burnings
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Give an example of one of Mary's other religious policies.
The recruitment of preists
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When was Poles legative synod?
1556-7
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The bill of 1555 which would have seized the property of Protestant exiles for the crown was what in parliament?
Defeated
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In what year was the bill that would have included Phillip in the new treason law rejected?
1554
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What does A.F.Pollard say about Mary's reign?
That it was sterile
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Give an example of financial reform under Mary.
Financial - the court of the exchequer took over the court of the 1st fruits and tenths and the court of Augmentations
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Give an example of naval and militia reforms under Mary
There was a complete reorganisation if the administration and finance of the navy. 2 complementary acts of parliament (Guy- a landmark in military history) changed the way in which an army were raised this was important- no standing army
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How many new ships were built?
6
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What was the allocated peacetime budget?
£14,000
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Why were these forms beneficial for Elizabeth?
They helped her to defeat the Armada
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Name 3 historians who argue that there was a mid Tudor crisis
A.F.Pollard, S.T.Bindoff and W.R.D.Jones
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Name historians who say that there was not
Dale Hoak, R. Tittler, D.Loades, D.MacCulloch
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the order of succession?

Back

Edward VI, Mary I ,Elizabeth I

Card 3

Front

What did Henry create in his will?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who overthrew the recency council within a few weeks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What relation was Edward Seymour, to King Edward VI?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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