The Treaty of Versailles

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Why did German's assume a fair peace?
1. Defeat had not been expected, 2. It was assumed that Wilson's 14 Points would lay the basis of the terms
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What did the first Weimar gov. do in shock and outrage at the draft terms of the peace settlement when presented to them in May 1919?
Led by Scheidmann, it resigned
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The Treaty of Versailles was accepted by the Reichstag by how many votes?
237 to 138
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Why was the Reichstag obliged to accept the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany did not have the military capacity to resist
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The Treaty of Versailles was a compromise between...
... the Allied powers
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What were the main aims of Wilson's 14 points, drawn up in April 1917?
to bring about international disarmament, to apply the principle of self-determination, to create a League of Nations in order to maintain international peace
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Who was Georges Clemanceau?
Prime Minister of France, an uncompromising French nationalist motivated by revenge
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Territorial arrangements: Alsace-Lorraine
these provinces were to be returned to France
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Territorial arrangements: West Prussia & Posen
Germany was to surrender these, separating them from East Prussia and the main part of Germany, creating the 'Polish Corridor'
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Territorial arrangements: Austria
Anschluss with Austria was forbidden
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Territorial arrangements: Colonies
German colonies were distributed as 'mandates', ex. Britain took responsibility for German East Africa
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Recite Article 231, the War Guilt clause
Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments and their peoples have been subjected as a result of war.
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Reparations: who fixed the reparations sum?
the IARC (Inter-Allied Reparations Commission)
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Reparations: in 1921 the sum was fixed at...
£6600 million
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Disarmament: the Army
conscription abolished, army reduced to 100,000, no tanks or big guns
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Disarmament: the Rhineland
was to be demilitarised from the French frontier to a line 32 miles east of the Rhine
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Disarmament: Airforce & navy
Germany was allowed no military aircraft, navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats, 0 submarines
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What did the Allies create to maintain peace?
the League of Nations
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How did German's view the treaty?
As a 'diktat' - undignified and unworthy of a great power
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Why did Germany find the War Guilt clause impossible to accept?
They were convinced the war had been fought for defensive reasons, because their country had been threatened by 'encirclement' from the Allies in 1914
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Why do historians nowadays view the peacemakers of 1919 more sympathetically?
It is recognised that it was the situation created by the war that shaped the terms of the Treaty not just anti-German feeling
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Why was the application of self-determination not nearly as unfair as Germans believed?
Alsace-Lorraine would have voted to return to France, the war was fought on foreign soil, plebiscites were held in Silesia, Schleswig and parts of Prussia
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How was Germany in a stronger position (in some respects) in 1919 then 1914?
The great empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Turkey had gone, creating a power vacuum in central Europe
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% of population lost?
12%
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% of territory lost?
13%
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% of iron ore production lost?
48%
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% of coal production lost?
16%
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Card 2

Front

What did the first Weimar gov. do in shock and outrage at the draft terms of the peace settlement when presented to them in May 1919?

Back

Led by Scheidmann, it resigned

Card 3

Front

The Treaty of Versailles was accepted by the Reichstag by how many votes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was the Reichstag obliged to accept the Treaty of Versailles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Treaty of Versailles was a compromise between...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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