The Second Reich

HideShow resource information
What year was the Zabern Affair?
1913
1 of 368
Before 1871 what was Germany like?
A group of separate states
2 of 368
Who unified Germany?
Bismarck
3 of 368
When was Germany unified?
1871
4 of 368
What event unified Germany?
The joint victory in the war against France
5 of 368
Who was the first Kaiser of Germany?
Wilhelm I
6 of 368
Name two German states that allied in the war against France
Prussia and Bavaria
7 of 368
What army did the Prussians lead in the war against France?
The North German Confederation
8 of 368
What was the North German Confederation?
A group of states that were independent in government but whose armies were controlled by the King of Prussia.
9 of 368
What year did the Germans win the war against France?
1871
10 of 368
On whose terms was the unification of the German states?
Prussia's
11 of 368
What was the new constitution similar to?
The constitution of the North German Confederation
12 of 368
Who authored the constitution?
Otto Von Bismarck
13 of 368
Why was Bismarck hired by Wilhelm I?
To allow him to pass his advanced conscription laws
14 of 368
What was the main aim of the constitution?
To preserve the powers of the elite
15 of 368
Who was Germany's first chancellor?
Otto Von Bismarck
16 of 368
Of what political standing was Bismarck?
Neo-conservative
17 of 368
What dates was Bismarck President of Prussia?
1862-1890
18 of 368
What dates was Bismarck Chancellor of Germany?
1871-1890`
19 of 368
What country did Germany base its political chambers on?
Britain
20 of 368
Who was the head of state?
The kaiser
21 of 368
For who did the new constitution secure power for?
The elites- landowners, kaiser, chancellor and army
22 of 368
How did the kaiser come to power?
Through hereditary means
23 of 368
What main power did the kaiser have over government?
He could dissolve the reichstag
24 of 368
Who was in charge of foreign policy?
The kaiser
25 of 368
Who did the kaiser appoint and dismiss?
The chancellor and other important ministers
26 of 368
Were ministers and the chancellors dependent on the reichstag for power?
No
27 of 368
Who proposed new laws?
Ministers
28 of 368
What were the two chambers of the German parliament?
The reichstag and the bunderstrat
29 of 368
How were deputies to the reichstag elected?
Through universal male suffrage
30 of 368
What power did the reichstag have?
To pass or reject laws proposed by ministers
31 of 368
Name all of the German political parties at the time
The conservatives, progressives, national liberals, centre and SPD
32 of 368
Who could vote in Germany?
Men over 25
33 of 368
How frequent were elections?
Every three years
34 of 368
Did German people have codified rights?
No
35 of 368
What type of structure was Germany?
Federal
36 of 368
What is beneficial about male suffrage?
Representative (of the time)
37 of 368
What is good about a federal structure?
Inclusive
38 of 368
What was theoretically good about the reichstag?
Democratic
39 of 368
Could the reichstag create legislature?
No
40 of 368
Was the chancellor tied to the reichstag?
No he was independent
41 of 368
Who had the power over budget and taxation?
The reichstag
42 of 368
Who was the chancellor dependent on?
The kaiser
43 of 368
How many votes were needed in the bundersrat to veto the reichstag?
14
44 of 368
How many votes in the bundersrat did Prussia have?
17
45 of 368
What kind of a voting system did Prussia have?
A three tier voting system
46 of 368
What was Prussia's three tier voting system based on?
Wealth
47 of 368
What did this mean?
That the wealthiest had the most votes
48 of 368
When was Kaiser Wilhelm II born?
1859
49 of 368
Who was Wilhem II's grandfather?
Wilhelm I
50 of 368
Who was Wilhelm II's father?
Frederick III
51 of 368
How long did Kaiser Wilhelm's father reign for?
3 months
52 of 368
How old was Kaiser Wilhelm II when he came to power?
Twenty nine
53 of 368
Who did Kaiser Wilhelm II admire?
Bismarck
54 of 368
What was the "divine right of kings"?
The idea that kings were chosen by God to rule
55 of 368
When did Bismarck resign?
1890
56 of 368
Why did Bismarck resign?
Kaiser Wilhelm forced him into it
57 of 368
How did historian John Rohl describe Wilhelm II's rule?
That he had established a personal rule
58 of 368
Who did Wilhelm fill his court with?
Supporters
59 of 368
Who was Prince Philip of Eulenburg?
The kaiser's best friend who had immense power over him
60 of 368
What was Prince Philip of Eulenburg responsible for in 1900?
Bulow's appointment as chancellor
61 of 368
What did chancellors literally do?
Lead government on behalf of the Kaiser
62 of 368
What were chancellors expected to do?
Manipulate the reichstag, be loyal to the kaiser, prevent social/political reform, expand Germany's power and protect the power of Prussia
63 of 368
When did Bulow govern from and to?
1900-1909
64 of 368
What position did Bulow hold before becoming chancellor?
Foreign minister
65 of 368
What kind of a relationship did Bulow have with the Kaiser?
A courtier-like relationship
66 of 368
How did Bulow treat the Reichstag?
He manipulated it
67 of 368
When did Bulow resign?
1909
68 of 368
Why did Bulow resign?
He lost the loyalty of the kaiser after forcing him to apologise to the reichstag after a newspaper interview
69 of 368
When was Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg chancellor from and to?
1909-1917
70 of 368
What was Hollweg known for?
Being blunt and honest but efficient
71 of 368
What was Bethmann Hollweg's fault?
Knew nothing about the military which was disastrous after 1914
72 of 368
What did the ruling classes want for the empire?
For it to be built to rival Britain's
73 of 368
What did the liberal parties want a focus on?
Social reform
74 of 368
What did the German colonial officials do in 1904?
Exterminated the African Herero people after an uprising
75 of 368
What did the liberals do in reaction to this?
They were outraged and pushed for the army and colonies to come under Reichstag control and for greater control over colonial finances
76 of 368
What did chancellor Bulow propose in 1906?
A law to increase colonial finances
77 of 368
What did the two main liberal parties do in response to Bulow's proposition of increasing colonial finaces?
Joined together to reject it
78 of 368
What was Bismarck known as?
The Iron Chancellor
79 of 368
Could the Reichstag formulate policy?
No
80 of 368
Which source of power held the power of the purse in Germany's government?
The Reichstag
81 of 368
How did the Kaiser respond to the two major liberal party's opposition to Bulow's proposed legislation to increase colonial finances?
He dissolved the Reichstag
82 of 368
What is the election of 1907 referred to as?
The Hottentot Election
83 of 368
What happened in the Hottentot Election?
Bulow created his 'Bulow's Bloc' which was an alliance of conservative parties to combat the liberals
84 of 368
What was the result of the Hottentot Election?
The conservatives won the election
85 of 368
What tactic did Bulow use in the Hottentot Election?
He scared the German voters by suggesting that a liberal victory would lead to a socialist revolution
86 of 368
What caused the Daily Telegraph Affair?
The Kaiser gave an interview with the Daily Telegraph where he expressed the desire for a closer relationship with Britain
87 of 368
When was the Daily Telegraph Affair?
1908
88 of 368
What happened in the Daily Telegraph Affair?
The Reichstag objected to the interview which the Kaiser gave to the Daily Telegraph in 1908 and criticised him for making a statement on foreign policy without consultation
89 of 368
How did the Daily Telegraph Affair finish?
Bulow secured a promise from the Kaiser that he wouldn't do so again and the Kaiser apologised to the Reichstag
90 of 368
What happened to Bulow after the Daily Telegraph Affair?
He lost the trust of the Kaiser and was forced to resign after his budget was rejected in 1909
91 of 368
Where is Zabern?
A town in Alsace
92 of 368
What was the history of Zabern?
It was annexed from France in 1871
93 of 368
What were the social issues in Zabern?
There was friction between remaining French residents and German soldiers
94 of 368
After disturbances in Zaben in 1913 what does the army do?
Imposes a curfew on the residents
95 of 368
How many people were arrested in the disturbances of 1913 in Zabern?
Twenty eight
96 of 368
What happened to one disabled Frenchman in Zabern throughout the disturbances of 1913?
He was badly assaulted
97 of 368
What happened to the soldier who assaulted the disabled Frenchman in Zabern?
The case against him was dismissed by military court, an action also supported by the Kaiser
98 of 368
What happens in response to the case against the soldier who assaulted a disabled Frenchman in Zabern's case being thrown out?
Protests erupted across the country as the military was seen to be acting above the law
99 of 368
What does the Reichstag attempt to do in response to the assault of a disabled Frenchman being thrown out by military court in Zabern?
Holds a vote of no confidence
100 of 368
What does the Reichstag attempt to do in response to the assault of a disabled Frenchman being thrown out by military court in Zabern?
Holds a vote of no confidence
101 of 368
What did Bethmann do in response to the vote of no confidence against him?
He chose to ignore it and refused to resign with the support of the Kaiser
102 of 368
What was the vote result in the vote of no confidence in Bethmann?
293 to 54
103 of 368
What was the second industrial revolution?
The boom in production of steel, chemicals, electrical and autmobiles in Germany
104 of 368
In 1871 what percentage of Germany was urbanised?
Thirty six per cent
105 of 368
In 1910 what percentage of Germany was urbanised?
Sixty per cent
106 of 368
What were the effects of the second industrial revolution and urbanisation?
Rural poverty, poor living standards, growth of the middle class and new industrial elites
107 of 368
Why did rural poverty occur in the second industrial revolution?
Depopulation of the countryside and decline of agricultural production
108 of 368
Why were there poor living standards in the second industrial revolution?
Lack of housing and sanitation, growth of the working class and poor food supplies to the cities
109 of 368
What percentage of Germans belonged to the working class in the Second Industrial Revolution?
Forty per cent
110 of 368
What did poor living standards and the growth in the working class lead to?
The spread of socialism and rise of the SPD
111 of 368
What does the mittelstand mean?
Small businesses
112 of 368
Give an example of the rise of big business in Germany
The krupps munitions complex and Thyssens
113 of 368
Of what political standing were the industrial elites?
Conservative
114 of 368
Who did the industrial elites ally with?
The Junkers
115 of 368
Who were Junkers?
Landowners and nobility
116 of 368
What was sammlungspolitik?
The policy of Kaiser Wilhelm of uniting the elites to protect themselves from rebellions from below
117 of 368
Who supported the Conservative party in the Second Reich?
Prussian Junkers and landowners
118 of 368
What were the views of the Conservative Party?
They were loyal to the Kaiser, authoritarian, nationalist and aristocratic
119 of 368
Who supported the Free Conservative Party?
Commercial and industrial elites
120 of 368
What were the views of the Free Conservative's?
Similar to the Conservatives, support autocracy and protectionism
121 of 368
What is protectionism?
The economic policy of restraining trade between states by introducing tariffs on imported goods etc
122 of 368
Who supported the National Liberal Party?
The protestant middle classes
123 of 368
What were the views of the National Liberal Party?
Conservative, nationalists, anti-Catholic and anti-socialists
124 of 368
Who supported the Liberal Progressive Party?
The middle classes
125 of 368
What were the views of the Liberal Progressive Party?
Wanted parliamentary reform, development of democracy, federalism and regionalism
126 of 368
Who supported the Centre Party?
The Catholic Church and its members, based in Bavaria, also the non-socialist middle and working class
127 of 368
What were the views of the Centre Party?
Federalism, anti-Prussian and wanted political reform
128 of 368
Who supported the SPD?
Working classes
129 of 368
What were the views of the SPD?
Wanted social and political reform, a more democratic system with strong welfare and had small factions of revolutionary communists
130 of 368
Which three parties were Liberals in the Second Reich?
Liberal Progressives, Centre Party and SPD
131 of 368
Which three parties were Conservatives in the Second Reich?
The Conservative Party, Free Conservatives and National Liberals
132 of 368
What did the Conservatives want to do with the Constitution?
Preserve it
133 of 368
What did the Liberals want to do to the Constitution?
Reform it
134 of 368
How many seats did the SPD win in 1898?
Fifty six
135 of 368
How many seats did the SPD win in the 1912 election?
One hundred and ten
136 of 368
What happened in the 1912 election to the Reichstag?
A swing to the left
137 of 368
Which party won the most seats in the 1898 election?
Centre Party
138 of 368
Before 1912 which party traditionally won the most seats in the Reichstag?
Centre Party
139 of 368
Which party won the most amount of votes in the 1903 election?
The SPD
140 of 368
Did the SPD win the most amount of seats in 1903?
No
141 of 368
Why was it so hard for the SPD to win the most seats despite being the party with the most votes?
Prussia's three tier voting system and unreformed German constituencies
142 of 368
What was Prussia's three tier voting system?
A voting system based on wealth, working class votes counted for less so therefore the higher classes who voted for the conservative parties had more power and elected more seats
143 of 368
How many seats did 400,000 tier one votes in Prussia win under the three tier voting system?
Two hundred
144 of 368
How many seats did 600,000 tier three votes in Prussia win under the three tier voting system?
Six
145 of 368
What did the unreformed German constituencies mean?
That rural areas with few people were able to send less deputies to the Reichstag
146 of 368
What happened to the SPD's vote in 1907?
It collapsed
147 of 368
Why did the SPD vote collapse in 1907?
Bulow's Bloc scared people against voting for the SPD for fear of a socialist revolution
148 of 368
Who formed a majority coalition government in 1912?
The SPD and Centre Party
149 of 368
What was Sammlungspolitik?
The policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm where the chancellor and conservatives worked together against socialism and to maintain conservatism
150 of 368
How did the German government enable Sammlungspolitik?
They gave a small degree of social reform so that they were seen to be changing and thus gained popularity but in reality did very little else in the way of reform
151 of 368
What reform did the conservatives introduce in 1899 as a part of Sammlungspolitik?
Increased old age pensions
152 of 368
What reform did conservatives introduce in 1900 as a part of Sammlungspolitik?
They extended accident insurance
153 of 368
What reform did the conservatives introduce in 1903 as a part of Sammlungspolitik?
They amended the sickness insurance law to make it longer and more generous
154 of 368
What reform did the conservatives introduce in 1908 as a part of Sammlungspolitik?
A law to reduce the amount of factory work
155 of 368
What happened to the Bulow's Bloc after his resignation in 1909?
It collapsed
156 of 368
Who succeeded Bulow as chancellor?
Bethmann
157 of 368
What was Bethmann's way of ensuring Sammlungspolitik?
He introduced the Imperial Insurance Code
158 of 368
What was the Imperial Insurance Code?
Consolidated all previous workers insurance laws and amended and extended their provisions with certain groups ensured sickness, old age and death
159 of 368
What type of reforms did Bethmann refuse to allow?
Any political reforms
160 of 368
What did the refusal of Bethmann to make any political reform lead to?
The SPD's election victory in 1912
161 of 368
What was the result of the SPD victory in 1912?
Political gridlock with the chancellor refusing serious reform and the SPD demanding nothing but reform
162 of 368
What impact did the political gridlock after the SPD victory in 1912 have on the public?
They looked to mass movements for representation instead of parties
163 of 368
Give examples of mass political movements in the Second Reich
Pressure groups, trade unions, the mittelstand, non-Prussian regions and Catholic Church
164 of 368
What type of groups used pressure groups?
Conservatives and the middle classes
165 of 368
What types of groups used trade unions for mass political support?
The working classes
166 of 368
Give examples of pressure groups in the Second Reich
The Pan German League, The Agrarian League and The Navy League
167 of 368
What were the beliefs and wishes of the Pan German League?
They believed in Sammlungspolitik, they wanted a colonial empire with a strong military and the suppression of the SPD
168 of 368
How many members did the Pan German League have?
25,000
169 of 368
Which groups formed the membership of the Pan German League?
Junkers and the new industrial elites
170 of 368
How many members did the Agarian League have in 1900?
250,000
171 of 368
Who formed the membership of the Agrarian League?
Junkers
172 of 368
What were the beliefs and wants of the Agrarian League?
They wanted tariff protection and subsidies for farmers
173 of 368
What political party did the Agrarian League have a great influence on?
The Conservative Party
174 of 368
Which groups supported the Navy League?
Conservatives and the middle class nationalists
175 of 368
In November 1900, how many members did the Navy League have?
One million
176 of 368
What were the wants and beliefs of the Navy League?
Naval expansion
177 of 368
What laws did the Navy League have a large role in?
The Navy Laws
178 of 368
How many members did the trade unions have in 1911?
Three million
179 of 368
Who were the trade unions closely allied with?
The SPD
180 of 368
What were the wants and beliefs of the trade unions?
Greater social reform
181 of 368
Give an example of the SPD exerting their power
In 1913 there was a 400,000 strong strike
182 of 368
What was the fear of elites towards the SPD-trade union alliance?
That it was so powerful as to bring down the entire Second Reich
183 of 368
What battle ended the Franco-Prussian War?
The Battle of Sedan
184 of 368
Who had fought the French in the Franco Prussian War?
Prussia in alliance with a number of German states including Bavaria
185 of 368
What army did the Prussians lead in the Franco-Prussian War?
The North German Confederation
186 of 368
When was the North German Confederation formed?
1867
187 of 368
How were the states of the North German Confederation defined?
By a constitution
188 of 368
What did the constitution of the North German Confederation state?
That the states governments would control themselves individually but that their military matters were led by the King of Prussia, however they did have one central law making body
189 of 368
What year did Germany defeat the French in the Franco Prussian War?
1871
190 of 368
What was created out of the German victory in the Franco Prussian war?
The unification of the Northern German Confederation with Southern German states
191 of 368
How many states formed Germany in 1971?
Twenty five
192 of 368
What powers did each German state have once they unified in 1971?
The power to their own governments, education, police, justice, healthcare etc
193 of 368
Who was the Kaiser?
The Prussian King
194 of 368
Which state was most dominant after the unification of German states?
Prussia
195 of 368
What powers did the Kaiser have?
Power over the armed forces, foreign policy and diplomatic policy, he appointed and dismissed the chancellor, to dissolve the Reichstag, publish and oversee implementation of federal law and guardian of the constitution
196 of 368
Who was the first Kaiser?
Wilhelm I
197 of 368
For how long did Wilhelm I rule?
Seventeen years
198 of 368
How old was Wilhelm II when he inherited the throne?
Twenty nine
199 of 368
Who was Wilhelm's main source of advice?
The military
200 of 368
What were the poor qualities of Wilhelm II?
He was unwilling to share power, poor decision maker, had a short attention span and did not work hard
201 of 368
Who was the Chancellor directly responsible to?
The Kaiser
202 of 368
What was the formal title of the Chancellor?
Chief minister of the Reich
203 of 368
What powers did the Chancellor have?
Oversaw the appointments and dismissals of ministers and secretaries, Minister-President of Prussia, he could ignore the resolutions passed by the Reichstag
204 of 368
What factors did the success of a Chancellor depend on?
Political ability, character of the Kaiser and the composition of the Reichstag
205 of 368
Who was the replacement of Bismarck?
General von Caprivi
206 of 368
What was the name of the upper house in the federal parliament?
The Bundesrat
207 of 368
How many people sat in the Bundesrat?
Fifty eight
208 of 368
How were representatives to the Bundesrat nominated?
By the States' assemblies
209 of 368
What powers did the Bundesrat have?
To change the constitution and could veto legislation if 14 or more of its members voted against a bill
210 of 368
Why did Bismarck create a Bundesrat?
To act as a barrier to radical legislation
211 of 368
How many seats did Prussia have in the Bundersrat?
Seventeen
212 of 368
In the three tier voting system in Prussia, what percentage of the electorate sat in the lowest grouping?
Ninety two per cent
213 of 368
What was the lower house of the federal parliament?
The Reichstag
214 of 368
What was the most significant power held by the Reichstag?
The power over the defence budget
215 of 368
In the 1870s what was the annual German defence budget?
One hundred million marks
216 of 368
In 1904 what was the annual defence budget?
2,405,000
217 of 368
What happened to the Reichstag's power over the annual defence budget?
Bismarck recognised the threat it held and managed to pass the Septennial Act
218 of 368
What was the Septennial Act?
Meant that the Reichstag only voted on the defence budget once every seven years (later changed to only once every 5 years in 1893)
219 of 368
What were the powers of the Reichstag?
To pass a budget, power over the defence budget, to debate and reject or accept legislation and to make trouble for a chancellor
220 of 368
What year were the constituency boundaries drawn for the Reichstag?
1870s
221 of 368
What were elections to the Reichstag based on?
Universal male suffrage of men over 25
222 of 368
Could Reichstag members also become members of government?
No, they would have to resign their seats
223 of 368
Give an example of the Reichstag creating problems for the Chancellor?
The Zabern Affair 1909
224 of 368
Was the military accountable to the Reichstag?
No
225 of 368
How did Bismarck prevent working classes from entering the Reichstag?
He hinted that members would not be paid
226 of 368
Was the army at all referenced in the constitution?
No`
227 of 368
Why did the army carry such heavy significance in Germany?
The unification of Germany lay on the back of its victories
228 of 368
Who was the army responsible to?
The Kaiser
229 of 368
Who appointed the military cabinet?
The Kaiser
230 of 368
What was the role of the Military?
To advise and choose the General Staff
231 of 368
What is the General Staff?
A group of officers and enlisted personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit
232 of 368
Who did the army swear an oath of allegiance to?
The Kaiser
233 of 368
What were the powers of the military?
To declare martial law
234 of 368
Was the bureaucracy defined in the constitution?
No
235 of 368
Who were bureaucrats?
Civil servants
236 of 368
In 1870 what industries were Britain dominant in?
Coal and iron
237 of 368
By 1914 which industries had Germany overtaken Britain for dominance?
Iron
238 of 368
What process allowed the growth of Germany as an economic power?
The Thomas Gilchrist method of manufacturing steel
239 of 368
What did the Thomas Gilchrist method of manufacturing steel involve?
The use of phosphoric ores
240 of 368
Where were phosphoric ores commonly found in Gemany?
Alsace Lorraine
241 of 368
Give examples of German steel manufacturing
The Krupps munitions complex and Essen
242 of 368
In 1900 how many British firms had the capacity to produce over 300,000 tonnes annually of steel?
One
243 of 368
In 1900 how many German steel companies had the capacity to produce over 300,000 tonnes annually?
Ten
244 of 368
What kind of an effect did German steel production have on their other industries?
A positive domino effect
245 of 368
What did German steel production also fuel?
The creation of armaments and railways
246 of 368
How long were the Prussian railways in 1878?
Five thousand km
247 of 368
How long were the Prussian railways in 1914?
Thirty seven thousand km
248 of 368
How was the chemical industry fuelled?
By the demand for dyes from textile manufacturers, demand for explosives from the military and investment and training
249 of 368
How many full time students were in advanced commercial and technical training in Germany on the eve of WW1?
Near sixty thousand
250 of 368
How many full time students were in advanced commercial and technical training in Britain on the eve of WW1?
Nine thousand
251 of 368
By 1900 which country had monopoly over the manufacture of dyes?
Germany
252 of 368
Give an example of German companies that produced dyes
Badische Anilin Und Soda Fabrik
253 of 368
In 1914 what percentage of dyes did Britain import?
Eighty
254 of 368
Where did Britain mainly source its dyes from?
Germany
255 of 368
In WW1 where did the dyes for British uniforms come from?
Germany
256 of 368
Which country was leading in pharmaceuticals in 1900?
Germany
257 of 368
How many meters of film did the film company AGFA produce in 1908?
One million
258 of 368
What did Rudolf Diesel do in 1897?
Perfected an oil based engine
259 of 368
What did Gottlieb Daimler do in 1886?
Perfected a high speed petrol engine
260 of 368
What did von Zeppelin do in 1900?
Launched the first rigid airship
261 of 368
When did the first prototype airship fly?
1908
262 of 368
In 1907 how many Germans worked as electrical workers?
One hundred thousand
263 of 368
Give examples of electricity companies in Germany
AEG and Siemans and Halske
264 of 368
By the eve of the Second World War, what fraction of Europe's electrical business was being controlled by Germany?
Half
265 of 368
In Hamburg over a ten week period in 1892, how many people died of cholera?
8,600
266 of 368
What did the Hamburg authorities do in response to the rapid spread of cholera in 1892?
Built a sewage system, a waste incinerator and a filtering plant for water
267 of 368
By what amount did the introduction of a diphtheria serum decrease infant mortality by?
Half
268 of 368
What did the introduction of tramworks mean for the second industrial revolution?
That workers could escape the slums, live in the suburbs and commute
269 of 368
In additions to trams, what other method of transport was introduced in 1901?
Trolley buses
270 of 368
Through the period 1882-1907 by what amount did the amount of industrial workers increase by?
Double
271 of 368
After 1900, how many men every year did the Berlin Homeless Shelter Association accommodate?
Two hundred thousand
272 of 368
In 1882, what was the national unemployment figure?
1.35m
273 of 368
In 1907 what was the national unemployment figure?
3.45m
274 of 368
Where did unemployment in the second reich tend to occur?
In the unskilled working class
275 of 368
How many white collar workers were there in 1907?
Three million
276 of 368
What was the population of Berlin in 1910?
Two million
277 of 368
What was the population of Germany in 1910?
Sixty five million
278 of 368
In 1910 what percentage of people were living in urban areas?
Sixty
279 of 368
In 1871 what percentage of people were living in rural areas?
Sixty three
280 of 368
Who did Bismarck's Tariff Law protect?
Farmers
281 of 368
What did Bismarck's Tariff Law do?
Protected the price of agricultural produce such as barley, wheat and rye
282 of 368
What did the development of the chemical industries provide for farmers in Germany?
Artificial fertilisers
283 of 368
What was the result of the introduction of artificial fertilisers?
A increase in yields such as sugar beet
284 of 368
In 1882, how many farms had threshing machines?
374,000
285 of 368
In 1907 how many farms had threshing machines?
One and a half million
286 of 368
What did refrigerated ships make possible?
The importation of meat from the US
287 of 368
What was good about meat from the US?
It was cheaper
288 of 368
What was the effect on landlords by the Second Industrial Revolution?
Their workers moved to the cities to find better work
289 of 368
What did landlords do in response to the migration of their workforce?
Recruited foreign labour from the borders
290 of 368
On the eve of WW1 how many foreign nationals were there working in Germany?
Half a million
291 of 368
Where was the majority of the foreign workforce from?
Poland
292 of 368
On the eve of WW1 how many workers were members of trade unions?
Two and a half million
293 of 368
In 1913 how many workers went on strike at some point?
Four hundred thousand
294 of 368
How many members did the SPD have in 1910?
720,000
295 of 368
By the eve of WW1 what percentage of the vote was the SPD winning in Berlin?
Seventy five
296 of 368
In 1912 how many seats did the SPD win in the Reichstag?
One hundred and ten
297 of 368
What did the SPD do in 1891?
Committed to a revolutionary Marxist programme
298 of 368
How many members did the Pan German League have in the Reichstag?
Sixty
299 of 368
When was the Central Association of German Industrialists founded?
1886
300 of 368
What did the Central Association of German Industrialists want?
To protect economic interests
301 of 368
In 1912, how many electoral candidates did the Central Association for German Industrialists fund?
One hundred and twenty
302 of 368
How much did the Central Association for German Industrialists pay to fund electoral candidates in 1912?
One million
303 of 368
Which pressure group was considered the most powerful?
The Central Association for German Industrialists
304 of 368
What is an Agrarian?
Someone who advocates the redistribution of privately owned land
305 of 368
Who led the Agrarian League?
The junkers
306 of 368
Who did the Agrarian League gain widespread support from?
The peasantry
307 of 368
By 1914 how many members did the Agrarian League have?
A third of a million
308 of 368
What were the three main issues that Chancellors faced?
The demand from elites for aggressive foreign policy, the demand for social reform and the demand for constitutional reform
309 of 368
What did Bismarck pass in October 1878?
The Anti Socialist Law
310 of 368
What did the Anti Socialist Law do?
Banned the SPD and drove all socialist organisations underground
311 of 368
What did the Reichstag do to the Anti Socialist Law in 1890?
Refused to confirm it
312 of 368
What was the Kaiser's view on the Anti Socialist Law of 1878?
He supported the Reichstag's objection
313 of 368
What did Von Bulow do before his chancellorship?
He was foreign minister
314 of 368
What was passed in 1898?
The first navy law
315 of 368
How many battle ships did the Royal Navy have in 1896?
Thirty three
316 of 368
How many battleships did the Germans have in 1896?
Six
317 of 368
Which pressure group supported the Navy Laws?
The Navy League
318 of 368
What was passed in 1900?
The second navy law
319 of 368
What did the second navy law propose?
That Germany build 38 ships in 20 years
320 of 368
What impact did the Second Navy Law have on industry?
Steel production increased
321 of 368
Why was the third navy law passed?
In response to the launch of the HMS dreadnought
322 of 368
When was HMS dreadnought launched?
1906
323 of 368
When was the third navy law passed?
1906
324 of 368
What did the third navy law propose?
The building of 6 more battle cruisers and the widening of the Kiel Canal to allow the passage of warships to the North Sea
325 of 368
Who was Von Bulow's interior minister?
Count Arthur von Posadowsky
326 of 368
What was passed in December 1902?
A new Tariff Law
327 of 368
Who supported the new Tariff Law of 1902?
The Agrarian League
328 of 368
What was the result of the 1903 election?
A swing towards the SPD in response to the Tariff Law
329 of 368
Why did Germany find it hard to expand its empire?
Because most territories had already been conquered by other European powers
330 of 368
What social law was passed in late 1908?
Factory hours were reduced for workers and no children under 13 were allowed to be employed
331 of 368
What did the Germans build in 1899 to improve their influence in the Middle East?
The Konia to Constantinople railway which went through Baghdad
332 of 368
Which party was against colonial expansion?
The SPD
333 of 368
What was the Blue-Black Bloc?
The alliance of conservative and catholic parties
334 of 368
What year was the Herero Uprising?
1904
335 of 368
What happened in the Herero Uprising?
The indigenous people of South West Africa rose up against the Germans
336 of 368
Where were the Herero people defeated?
At the battle of Waterberg
337 of 368
What happened to the Herero people after their failed uprising?
They were subject to deliberate genocide through execution, incarceration in concentration camps and forced migration into the Namib Dessert
338 of 368
What was the population of the Herero peoples before the uprising?
Eighty thousand
339 of 368
What was the population of the Herero people after the genocide?
Fifteen thousand
340 of 368
How much did opposing the Herero rebellions cost the German government?
456 million marks
341 of 368
What year was the Hottentot election?
1906
342 of 368
What even broke Bulow's Bloc?
His proposal to extend the property tax or introduce a property tax
343 of 368
What did Bethmann Hollweg try to reform in 1910?
The Prussian voting system
344 of 368
Why did Bethmann Hollweg drop his attempts to reform the Prussian voting system?
Conservative opposition
345 of 368
What was introduced in 1911?
The Imperial Insurance Code
346 of 368
What did the Imperial Insurance Law do?
Consolidated all previous workers' laws and amended and extended their provisions
347 of 368
What did Bethmann Hollweg in 1911 with regards to Alsace Lorraine?
Introduced a constitution
348 of 368
Why did Bethmann Hollweg introduce a constitution in 1911 to Alsace Lorraine
To try and integrate it with the rest of Germany
349 of 368
How many votes did the SPD win in 1912?
Four million
350 of 368
How many seats did the SPD win in 1912?
One hundred and ten
351 of 368
Who became the VP in 1912?
SPD's Phillip Schiedemann
352 of 368
What conservative bill did the SPD allow to pass in 1913?
The Army Bill
353 of 368
What would the Army Bill of 1913 do?
Add 135,000 more soldiers
354 of 368
How much would the Army Bill of 1913 cost?
A billion marks
355 of 368
Why were the SPD prepared to vote for the Army Bill in 1913?
They did not want to be labelled as unpatriotic and the money for the bill would be raised through a property tax
356 of 368
When was the Zabern Affair?
1913
357 of 368
Who governed Alsace Lorraine?
The Stratthalter
358 of 368
What was a Stratthalter?
An imperial governor
359 of 368
What was the Treaty of Frankfurt 1872?
The peoples of Alsace Lorraine were given the option of emigration or German citizenship
360 of 368
How many people in Alsace Lorraine fled to France after 1871?
Twenty thousand
361 of 368
What percentage of the people left behind in Alsace Lorraine were French speakers?
Ten per cent
362 of 368
What was the name of the officer involved in the Zabern Affair?
Lieutenant von Forstner
363 of 368
Who did von Forstner assault?
A cobbler
364 of 368
Where was the Kaiser during the Zabern Affair?
On a hunting trip
365 of 368
Who's advice over the Zabern Affair did the Kaiser refuse to listen to?
The local representative
366 of 368
Who did the Kaiser choose to listen to about the Zabern Affair?
His military adviser
367 of 368
In 1907 how many more votes did the SPD alliance win than Bulow's Bloc?
Three million
368 of 368

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Before 1871 what was Germany like?

Back

A group of separate states

Card 3

Front

Who unified Germany?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When was Germany unified?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What event unified Germany?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The rise of Germany 1871 – 1945 resources »