The Russian autocracy in 1855 - key definitions

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Localism
loyalty to the local community or local area
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Autocratic
autocracy means having no limits on a ruler's power; such a ruler was called an autocrat
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Orthodox church
following a split in the christian church in the 11th century, the eastern orthodox church had developed its own beliefs and rituals; in 1453, when constaninople fell to the turks, moscow became its spiritual capital
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Over-Procurator
appointed by the Tsar from the laity, this was the highest church official
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Holy-Synod
a group of bishops, which forms the ruling body of the orthodox church; it is the highest authority on rules, regulations, faith and matters of church organisation
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Edict
an official order issued by a person of authority
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Provincial
living away from the capital
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Civil servant
someone working for the government
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Bureaucracy
a system of government in which most of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives
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Conscription
compulsory enlistment of a person into military service
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Serf
a person who was the property of the lord for whom he or she worked
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Military colony
where the conscripts lived and trained, all under strict military discipline
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Police state
a state in which the activities of the people are closely monitored and controlled for political reasons
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Entrepeneur
someone who invests money to set up a business despite the financial risks
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Cottage industry
work done in the worker's own home or a small workshop, typically spinning, weaving and small-scale wood and metal work; occasionally whole villages specialised in a particular trade, such as making samovars for boiling water for tea
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Internal market demand
the desire and ability ot buy the products of manufacturing within the country; if a country's inhabitants are poor, there will be little internal demand
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Landowning elite
those who owned land and who were a privileged minority in Russian society
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Capital accumulation
building up money reserves in order to invest
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Mortgage
this involves borrowing money by providing a garuntee; in this case, a landowner's serfs provided the garuntee for a state loan, and if the borrowed money and additional interest was not repaid, the state could seize the serfs
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Urban artisan
a manual worker in a town who posessed some skills, eg. a cobbler or a leather maker
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Intelligentsia
the more educated memebrs of Russian society, including writers and philosophers wih both humanitarian and nationalist concerns; many opposed the state for various cultural, moral, religious, philosophical and political reasons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

autocracy means having no limits on a ruler's power; such a ruler was called an autocrat

Back

Autocratic

Card 3

Front

following a split in the christian church in the 11th century, the eastern orthodox church had developed its own beliefs and rituals; in 1453, when constaninople fell to the turks, moscow became its spiritual capital

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

appointed by the Tsar from the laity, this was the highest church official

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a group of bishops, which forms the ruling body of the orthodox church; it is the highest authority on rules, regulations, faith and matters of church organisation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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