The rights and wrongs of genetic manipulation

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 18-06-16 16:23
What does xenotransplantation refer to?
Transplantation of cell tissues or organs between animals of different species.
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What is allotransplantation?
Transplantation between animal of the same species.
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What is the largest issue surrounding transplantation?
Transplanted organs are non-self tissue and will trigger an immune response. Can result in rejection and so immunosuppressant drugs are required.
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What are the other physiological problems with transplantation?
Differences in organ size, lifespan of organs, body temperature difference e.g. pigs.
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Describe ethical and medical issues of transplantation
Animal welfare groups oppose killing animals for organs. Religious beliefs e.g. Orthodox Jews and Muslims. Medical concerns about possible disease transfer.
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What are the benefits of microorganisms?
Genetically engineered microorganisms produce useful products e.g. insulin and human growth hormone.
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What are the risks of microorganisms?
Engineered microorganisms can escape from containment and transfer genes to pathogenic organisms. Antibiotic resistance often used as markers which could lead to widespread antibiotic resistance.
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What are the benefits of genetically engineering plants?
Accumulation of beta-carotene in endosperm of seeds could combat vitamin A deficiency. Resistance to pesticides increases yield.
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What are the risks of genetically engineering plants?
Genes introduced to crops may spread to wild relatives leading to less genetic variation. Super-weeds with resistance produced. Modified plants may be toxic or lead to allergic responses in humans.
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Describe the benefits of genetically engineering animals
Pharmaceutical chemicals can be produced in milk. Increased milk/meat production. Production of compatible organs for transplantation to humans.
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What are the issues with genetically engineering animals?
Animal welfare issues with animal suffering. Strong views of specific animals in some religions e.g. pigs with Orthodox Jews and Muslims.
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What are the positives of genetic manipulation in humans?
Gene therapies treat some genetic disorders.
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What are the risks of genetic manipulation in humans?
Ethical objections with unpredictable outcomes. Individuals in germline gene therapy have no say in whether they should have been modified. Could be used to enhance favourable features 'designer babies' and eugenic uses. Not allowed in humans.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is allotransplantation?

Back

Transplantation between animal of the same species.

Card 3

Front

What is the largest issue surrounding transplantation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the other physiological problems with transplantation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe ethical and medical issues of transplantation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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