The Restless Earth

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Crust
Solid outer layer of the earth, 0-80km thick, made up of tectonic plates
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Mantle
Made of molten rock, flows like liquid
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Outer core
Liquid made of silicate, iron and nickel
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Inner core
Solid made up of iron and nickel, reaches 5500 degrees
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Convection currents
Movement in the mantle due to heating and cooler
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Oceanic crust
Denser, younger crust made of basalt that can be created/destroyed
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Continental crust
Less dense, older crust made of granite that cannot be created/destroyed
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Destructive plate boundary
When an oceanic and continental plate move towards each other
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Constructive plate boundary
When two plates move apart
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Conservative plate boundary
When two plates move alongside each other in the same or opposite direction
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Collision zone/margin
When two continental plates collide, forcing the land up
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Fold mountains
Mountains formed from the folding of the earth's crust at a collision zone
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Shield volcano
Volcano with wide base, gently sloping sides, and frequent non-violent eruptions composed of lava only
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Composite volcano
Volcano with narrow base, steep sloping sides and rare, violent eruptions composed of layers of lava and ash
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Supervolcano
Volcano much larger than a regular volcano with a deep caldera
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Earthquake
Sudden shaking of the crust as a result of friction between two tectonic plates being released
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Focus
Point at which the shock waves of an earthquake originate from
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Epicentre
Point directly above the focus on the earth's surface
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Aftershocks
Smaller earthquakes following the main one as the plates settle into place
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Seismometers
Machine used to measure earthquakes
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Richter scale
Scale to express the magnitude of an earthquake
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Mercalli scale
Less widely used scale to describe the strength of an earthquake
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Mid-plate earthquake
Earthquake that occurs away from a plate boundary
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Tsunami
A wave caused by an undersea earthquake in which the entire depth of the ocean is set into motion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Made of molten rock, flows like liquid

Back

Mantle

Card 3

Front

Liquid made of silicate, iron and nickel

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Solid made up of iron and nickel, reaches 5500 degrees

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Movement in the mantle due to heating and cooler

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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