The Restless Earth

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Name two differences between oceanic and continental plates
1. Oceanic crust is thinner 2. Oceanic crust is less dense
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What is the name of the plate margin where two plates move towards each other?
Destructive
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What is an ocean trench?
A very deep section of the ocean floor where the oceanic crust sublimates under the continental plate (found only at destructive plate boundaries)
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What is the name of the plate margin where two plates move sideways against each other?
Conservative
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How are fold mountains formed?
When tectonic plates collide, the sedimentary rocks that have built up between them are folded and forced upwards to form fold mountains
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Give one way that humans use fold mountain areas
For farming
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Describe how farmers have adapted to the steep slopes in fold mountain areas
Steep slopes can be terraced to make growing crops easier
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Name one range of fold mountains
The Alps
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Name the five ways that humans use this area
1. Farming 2. Tourism 3. Hydro-electric power 4. Mining 5. Forestry
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Describe one of the ways that people have adapted to the conditions of the area
Steep relief: Goats are farmed there as they are well adapted to steep mountains. Trees and man-made defences are also used to protect against avalanches and rock slides
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What is magma called when it erupts onto the surface?
Lava
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Which type of volcano is made up of layers of ash and lava?
Composite volcano
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Name an example of this type of volcano
Mount Fuji in Japan
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Which type of volcano is formed when the lava is runny?
Shield volcano
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Name an example of this type of volcano
Mauna Loa on the Hawaiian islands
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What are the signs that mean that a volcanic eruption is likely?
Tiny earthquakes, escaping gas and changes in the shape of the volcano
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Name a volcanic eruption and state when and where it occured
The Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat on 25/6/97
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Name two negative primary impacts of this eruption
1. 19 people were killed 2. Farmland was destroyed
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Name two negative secondary impacts of this eruption
1. Fires destroyed many buildings 2. Population declined (many people left since eruption)
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Give two positive impacts of the eruption
1. Volcanic ash improved soil fertility 2. Tourism is now increasing as people come to see the volcano
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Give two immediate responses
1. People evacuated to safe areas in the north 2. UK provided £17 million of emergency aid
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What were two of the long-term responses?
1. A risk map was created an an exclusion zone is in place 2. The Montserrat Volcano Observatory was set up to predict future eruptions
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Where do supervolcanoes form?
At destructive plate boundaries or hotspots
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Give one way that a supervolcano is different from a normal volcano
A supervolcano has a caldera, whereas normal volcanoes only have a crater at the top
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Give one predicted effect of a supervolcano eruption
Ash will shoot kilometers into the air and block out almost all daylight over whole continents - this could trigger mini ice ages
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What causes earthquakes?
Due to the building tension in plates, they eventually jerk past each other which sends out shockwaves - these vibrations are the earthquake
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What is the point in the Earth called where the earthquake starts?
The focus
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What is the name of the point on the surface of the Earth above where an earthquake starts?
The epicentre
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What does the Richter scale measure?
This measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake (called the magnitude)
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Give an example of an earthquake in a rich part of the world
L'Aquila in Italy
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Describe two effects of the earthquake
1. Around 290 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings 2. Aftershocks hindered rescue efforts and caused more damage
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Describe two primary responses to the earthquake
1. Camps were set up for the homeless with water, food and medical care 2. Ambulances, fire engines and the army were sent to rescue survivors
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Give an example of an earthquake in a poor part of the world
Kashmir in Pakistan
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Describe two effects of the earthquake
1. Around 80,000 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings 2. Water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea spread due to little clean water
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Describe two responses to the earthquake
1. People had to be rescued by hand without any equipment or help from emergency services 2. New health centres have been set up in the area
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What causes a tsunami?
They are caused when huge amounts of water is displaced, usually by shockwaves from a earthquake
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Give an example of a tsunami
In the Indian Ocean in 2004
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Describe two effects of the tsunami
1. Around 230,000 people were killed or are still missing 2. Whole towns and villages were destroyed - over 1.7 million people were made homeless
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the name of the plate margin where two plates move towards each other?

Back

Destructive

Card 3

Front

What is an ocean trench?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the name of the plate margin where two plates move sideways against each other?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are fold mountains formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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