The Reconstruction Era.

  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 02-03-18 14:38
What was the reconstruction era?
When the USA was rebuilt after the civil war.
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What happened when the Union won the war in 1856 and what did this lead to?
Four million leaves were freed, which meant that the south's plantation economy had been destroyed.
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What did the politicians begin to do when this happened? (2.)
Rebuild the southern economy without slavery as a part of it and make the freed slaves fell part of a free society.
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When's the Emancipation Proclamation and what did it do?
1863 and it freed slaves that were in states initially in rebellion to the Union.
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Name the four border states and state what type of states these were after 1863.
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri and these were slave states after and in 1863.
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What did the 13th Amendment do, who passed it and when was it passed?
It formally abolished slavery in all of the USA, it was passed by Lincoln in 1864 (when he was re-elected.)
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When was Lincoln assassinated?
April of 1865.
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In what month and year was the 13th Amendment ratified (formally accepted) by ALL northern states and SOME southern states?
December of 1865.
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How many American states have to ratify an act until it is placed into the constitution?
Three-quarters.
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What did the 13th Amendment NOT give to freed slaves?
Equal rights.
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What did this lead to?
There being a debate whether the act should give them equal rights and, if so, how far should their rights go.
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What did the Freedmen's Bureau do and when was it set up?
It was set up in March of 1965 and it helped free slaves to rebuild their lives.
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Give five things that the Freedmen's Bureau offered to freed slaves.
Food, shelter, legal aid, new schools and medical aid.
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Give two issues with the Freedmen's Bureau and what did this lead to and when?
It was poorly funded and limited by political issues/debates, this meant that it closed in 1872.
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When did Andrew Johnson gain presidency?
April of 1865.
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What did Andrew Johnson do, in terms of Southern pardoning? (3.)
He pardoned all white southerns, but confederate leaders and wealthy planters (plantation owners.)
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What did the Southern elite do?
They regained power under Johnson, even though some of them had been in the Confederate army and/or government.
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What did Johnson do to Southern land and what did he do this in preference to?
He allowed southerners to continued to own it, instead of redistributing it.
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What was sharecropping and why did it happen? (3.)
It was when African Americans rented land from rich white American landowners and it happened; the freed slaves had little money and the southerners were allowed to keep their land.
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What did SOME freed slaves do, in terms of sharecropping and what did this show?
They rented from their previous masters, showing the desperation of the freed slaves.
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What two things happened to most sharecroppers (positive)?
They gained independence and freedom.
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What two things happened to some sharecroppers (negative) and why?
They got into debt and poverty, due to them being too poor to repay their rent to the landowner.
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What did SOME southern states introduce during the reconstruction era?
The Black Codes.
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What did the Black Codes do to lives of African Americans?
It limited them.
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What did South Carolina do to the taxing of African Americans? (3.)
They made ALL African Americans pay it, if they were not farmers or servants: lowering their job standards.
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What did Johnson do to stop the Black Codes and why?
Nothing; he was not in support of equal rights for them.
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In what year did Johnson veto (reject) the Civil Rights Act that gave equal rights to African Americans?
1866.
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What did Johnson do to the Freedmen's Bureau?
He tried to stop it from continuing its work.
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Give two things that radical republicans wanted in the reconstruction era?
Equal rights for African Americans and the punishment of Confederate leaders.
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What two things did moderately republicans not support?
They did not support Johnson vetoing both the Civil Rights Act and the the Freedmen's Bureau Bill.
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Who did this lead them to form an alliance with and what did this alliance do?
The radical republicans and they overturned the veto of the Civil Rights Act.
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When did Congress pass the 14th Amendment?
1868.
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Who opposed the 14th Amendment?
Johnson.
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Who did not ratify the 14th Amendment?
The Southern states.
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What did this lead Northern states to begin to believe?
That a tougher approach was needed towards the Southern states.
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What did was the 14th Amendment's 'citizenship clause?' (2.)
It said that anyone, regardless of race (not gender; it was only males), born in the USA was to gain citizenship, meaning that they were protected by the law.
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In which month and year were the first and second Reconstruction Acts passed by Congress?
March of 1867.
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What did the first and second Reconstruction Acts do?
They placed the south under military rule.
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What were rebel (most southern states) forced to do before they could rejoin the USA? Give two.
Ratify the 14th Amendment and they were forced to rewrite their constitutions to allow African Americans to vote.
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Was Congress' approach to the south more for less forceful than that of Johnson?
More forceful.
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What did Congress send into the south and to do what two things?
They sent troops there, to protect the African American's legal right to vote and to keep peace and protect them.
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What did Congress do to leading rebels in the south?
Removed them from Office.
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How did Johnson try to stop the Radical Reconstruction and what did this lead the radicals to do?
By vetoing both Reconstruction Acts, this lead to them impeaching him (putting him on trial.)
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What happened to Johnson when he was impeached? (2.)
He lost power, but was not convicted of anything.
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Who replaced Johnson, when he was impeached and when?
Ulysses Grant in 1869.
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When was the 15th Amendment passed?
1869.
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When was the 15th Amendment ratified?
1870.
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What did the 15th Amendment do? (4.)
It gave ALL Americans the right to vote, regardless of their race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
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By what year had ALL American states been readmitted into the Union?
1870.
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What type of government did the Southern states have and what three things did they support? Who were on these governments?
A republican government who supported African Americans, Reconstruction and northerners. They had white southerners on them.
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Who were the carpet baggers?
They were the northerners, who went to carry out the government's Reconstruction policies.
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What two things did southerners accuse carpet baggers of being?
Corrupt and exploiting the south.
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How did southerners feel towards the southern white republicans?
They felt betrayed by them.
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What two things lead southerners to believing that there was a black domination over the south?
The fact that they had the right to vote and that they held political power through this.
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In which two years were the three Enforcement Acts passed?
1870 and 1871.
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What three things the three Enforcement Acts stop Americans from doing to African Americans to stop them from voting?
They stopped them from using terror, force or bribery to stop black people from voting.
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What did the three Enforcement Acts help the government to do quickly?
Suppress the Ku Klux Klan.
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What was the Ku Klux Klan and when were they formed?
It was a white supremacist group formed in 1865.
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Which three groups of people did the Ku Klux Klan murder, lynch, beat and threaten?
African Americans, white republicans and republican supporters.
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What three places would the KKK burn?
Churches, schools and homes.
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What happened to KKK members under the three Enforcement Acts?
They were arrested and put on trial.
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Give two words to describe the radical reconstruction era?
Hopeful and idealistic.
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What did radicals mainly believe?
That equality could be achieved for all.
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By what year had political support for reconstruction weakened in the north?
By 1873.
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When was there an economic depression in the USA and what did it lead to? (3.)
In 1874 and it lead to high unemployment rates, which meant that the northerners lost interest in the south and its reconstruction.
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What did Supreme Court rulings do to the power of the 14th Amendment?
It weakened it.
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Why did the Republicans loosed support? (2.)
As there was corruption and depression under Grant
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When did the Democrats win control of the lower house of Congress?
1874.
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When was the republican Rutherford B.Hayes elected as president?
1876.
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What was said about the election results, when Hayes was elected as president?
That they were to be disputed.
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What did Hayes do in return for the Democrats accepting his election result? (2.)
He accepted their control of the south and ended military control there in 1877.
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What did this signify?
The end of the Reconstruction Era.
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By 1877, more than how many African Americans were registered to vote?
700,000
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By 1877, over how many African Americans were elected into state and national offices?
1500.
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What did some southerners ignore, by trying to stop African Americans from voting?
The 15th Amendment.
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In what year did the Supreme Court rule in defence of the unfair voting system for African Americans?
1898.
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What happened to many KKK members? (2.)
They were fined and let off without warning.
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Give two groups that began to emerge (from 1877) that were like the KKK?
The Rifle Clubs and the Red Shirts.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened when the Union won the war in 1856 and what did this lead to?

Back

Four million leaves were freed, which meant that the south's plantation economy had been destroyed.

Card 3

Front

What did the politicians begin to do when this happened? (2.)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When's the Emancipation Proclamation and what did it do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the four border states and state what type of states these were after 1863.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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