1. At what age does the Phallic stage occur?
- Occurs around the age of 4/5 years old.
- Lasts from 18 months to around 3 years old.
- Starts at puberty.
- Lasts from birth to around 18 months.
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2. What is a strength of Freud's defence mechanisms?
- They are objective as they do not require interpretation.
- There are everyday examples of all of the above defence mechanisms in real life.
- Can be tested scientifically, as the DV is operationalised.
3. What is the ego?
- Develops at around the age of 18 months and is the rational part of the personality. It's designed to balance the personality.
- The primitive part of the personality, often described as the biological component of the mind, as it is the one we are born with, which works on the pleasure principle and is the demanding aspect of our personality, which always wants our desires.
- Develops at around four years of age, and derives from the morality principle and is the “can’t have” part of the personality, which is made up of two components: the conscience and the ego ideal.
4. What is the adult character if fixation occurs in the latent stage?
- Fixation cannot occur.
- Reckless, vain, proud, and possibly incapable of loving another person.
- Either envious, pessimistic and sarcastic OR optimistic, admiring and gullible.
- Either anal-expulsive OR anal-retentive.
5. What are defence mechanisms?
- Designed to push thoughts, feelings and desires out of the conscious mind, or can transfer a desire onto something safer.
- The conflicting demands in the id.
- Keeping thoughts in the unconscious mind so that they are not remembered, as they are not allowed inside the conscious.