The Persian Empire

What year did Cyrus the Great come to power?
559BC
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Who did Cyrus defeat in 550BC?
Astyages and the Medes, used Harpagus to get army to switch sides
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What happened to Astyage's after he was defeated?
he was imprisoned and his life was spared
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Who did Cyrus defeat in 546BC?
Croesus and the Lydians
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What was the battle against the Lydians called?
The battle of Thymbra
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What happened to Croesus after he was defeated?
He was put on pyre with 14 boys, but his life was spared when he shouted Solon, Apollo cried and he became one of Cyrus' advisers
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Where did Cyrus go after defeating Lydia?
He took Sardis, the Lydian capital
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What did Cyrus refuse to do for Ionian Cities?
Continue terms of Croesus' rule because they didn't help him defeat Croesus
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Where did Harpagus lead an expedition to in 545BC?
To put down Ionian Revolt, many Greeks fled and other cities surrendered
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Who did Cyrus defeat in 539BC?
Nabonidus and the Babylonians
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Which river did Cyrus' army divert?
The river Euphrates
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What happened to Nabonidus?
His life was spared
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Who volunteered to join the Persian empire, and give access to the navy?
Phoenicians in the Levant and Cyprus
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How did the people of Babylon welcome Cyrus?
They knelt before him and kissed his feet
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What did Cyrus have rebuilt?
The temple of Jerusalem, which liberated the Jewish
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How did Herodotus say Cyrus died?
Against Tomyris and the Massagetae, had his head dropped in wine skin
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How did Xenophon say he died?
Peacefully at Pasargadae
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Who asked Cyrus to defeat Nabonidus?
Marduk
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What mountain range was Pasagardae built near?
The Zagros mountains
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Whats the Persian term for 'water garden'?
Paradaiza
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What year did Cyrus die?
530BC
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What represents Cyrus at the palace?
a winged figure
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Where was Cyrus' tomb?
half a mile South of the palace
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What year did Cambyses come to power?
530BC
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Who was the king of Egypt?
Amasis
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Who was the king of Egypt?
Amasis wouldn't let him marry his daughter, he had his eyes on the Levant and he supported Croesus against Cyrus
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What was the battle against Egypt called?
Battle of Pelusium
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Which city did Cambyses seige?
Memphis when the surrendered to him
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Who did Cambyses campaign against and what was the result?
Against Ethiopia his army starved and resorted to cannibalism
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Who did he campaign against after Ethiopia?
Siwa Oasis and he lost 50,000 men to a sandstorm
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Siwa Oasis and he lost 50,000 men to a sandstorm
Polycrates of Samos, he provided Cambyses with ships
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Who advised Cambyses to form an alliance with the arabs?
Phanes, one of Amasis' advisors said they would keep his army supplied with water
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Who surrendered to Cambyses after the defeat of Egypt?
Cyrene, Barca and Libya
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What did Cambyses do when he returned to Egypt from Ethiopia
executed all priests and killed the Apis bull
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What does Herodotus say happened to the Apis bull?
It was buried secretly without Cambyses ever finding out
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What did Egyptian sources say about the Apis bull?
Cambyses planned the burial of the Apis bull
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Who was Udjahorresne and what did he say Cambyses made Persian troops do?
An Egyptian noble who said Persian troops were made the leave the Temple of Neith to have it purified out of respect for Egyptian Gods
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How did Cambyses anger priests?
He made temples pay taxes
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Who did Cambyses make Prexaspes kill?
Smerdis as he had a dream of his head touching heaven on the throne
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What did Cambyses do to his sister?
Killed her by kicking her to death when she cried about Smerdis being killed
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What did Cambyses do to ancient tombs?
broke them open to look at dead bodies
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Where did he kill himself?
Ecbatana, Syria
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Who was the Smerdis Cambyses dreamt about?
a magi but he had his actual brother killed
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What was the alternative name for Smerdis?
Gaumata
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What did Smerdis stop Persian empire from paying?
tributes and military service for 3 years
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What did Smerdis stop Persian empire from paying?
Patizeithes
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Who became suspicious of Smerdis first?
Otanes
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What was Otanes' daughter called?
Phydamae
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What year did Darius become King?
522BC
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What was Darius the first person to call himself?
King of Persia
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What was Darius the first person to call himself?
Susa, Ecbatana, Pasargadae, Persepolis
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What did Darius build to connect his empire?
the Royal road and horse inns
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How many satrapies did Darius divide his empire into?
20
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What places did Darius bring into his empire in 517BC?
Samos, her navy, Lesbos and Chios
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Who encouraged Darius to expand on his empire?
His wife Atossa who was told by her doctor Democedes
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Where did Darius first bring into his empire?
The indus valley and he brought home North India
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How many men did Darius take into Thrace and Scythia?
700,000 mens and 600 ships`
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Who defended the bridge for Darius?
Histiaeus
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Who submitted to Darius? (2 places)
Macedonia and Thrace
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Where did Darius send and army to in 492BC, and who were they led by?
Mainland Greece under Mardonius
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What happened to Darius' troops against mainland Greece?
his fleet were wrecked off of Mt Athos and withdrew
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Who led Darius' second Greek invasion in 490BC?
Datis and Artaphrenes
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What islands did Darius mistreat and treat well?
He destroyed Naxos and Eretria, but treated Delos well leaving Frankincense
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Who led the Athenians and the Battle of Marathon?
Miltiades
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How many Athenians and Persians does Herodotus say died at Marathon?
6400 Persians and 192 Athenians
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What did Darius' 50 mile canal link?
The river Nile and the Red Sea
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Who did the Ionian cities revolt under?
Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus because he fell out with Satrap Artaphrenes
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What did Athens and Eretria send for the Ionian revolt?
20 ships
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What did the Ionians and Greeks destory at Sardis?
the temple of Cybebe, rebellion spread to Cyprus
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How many ships defeated the Battle of Lade in 484BC?
600 ships
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What did Darius do following the battle of Lade?
Sacked Miletus and temple of Diyma in revenge for Sardis
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What system did Artaphrenes introduce after the Ionian revolt?
Democracy in some Ionian cities made taxation fairer
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Who revolted against Darius in the last year of his reign?
The Egyptians
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Who did Darius claim relation to Cyrus through?
Achaemenes
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How did Darius win the throne?
Through horseplay
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What did the Behitsun inscription show?
9 liar kings chained up, Darius is trampling on Guamata and Ahuramazda is watching over him
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What languages are written on the inscription?
Babylonian and Elamite
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What happened to the Median leader, Phraortes?
He lost his nose, ears and tongue and was then stabbed
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What palace did he rebuild?
The palace of Susa by adding a 'gate of Darius'
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What palace did Darius build?
The palace of Persepolis, showed 23 nations bring their tributes to him all standing engraved on the audience hall
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What year did Darius die?
486BC
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Who pushed Xerxes to invade Greece, and why?
Mardonius, he wanted revenge on Athens and to become the satrap
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Who advised against Xerxes attacking Greece?
Artabanus, but he was ignored
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How many men, and from how many nations were in Xerxes army?
2.6 million men, 47 nations and 1207 ships
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When did Xerxes army set off agaisnt Greece?
Spring 480BC
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How many Spartan soldiers were there and what did the do to the narrow pass?
7000 Greeks led by Spartans, 300 blocked pass of Thermopylae
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What happened at the pass of Thermopylae?
A 4 day stand off, followed by 2 days of fighting, then Xerxes found a path over mountains to surround Greeks
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Who was Leonidas and what happened to him?
He was the Spartan king and his body was beheaded at Thermopylae
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Who led the Athenians away and where to?
Thermistocles led them to Salamis when they fled Xerxes
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How many Athenian ships were there?
381 ships placed at straits of Salamis so Xerxes couldn't use navy
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How did Thermistocles trick Xerxes?
He tricked him into blocking entrance to straits so Greeks had to fight, Greeks won and Xerxes returned to Persia, Mardonius was left in charge of small army in Northern Greece
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Where was Mardonius defeated in 479BC? (2 places)
Battle of Platea and Mycale on the Ionian coast
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What did the Greeks set up and who was in it?
The Delian league, involved Sparta, Athens and other Greek city states
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What battle were the Delian league successful at?
Battle of Eurymedon under the leadership of Cimon
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What happened after the Battle of Eurymedon?
Xerxes made peace with the Greeks
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Which former Spartan king was his advisor?
Demaratus
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What was Xerxes first job as king?
To put down the Egyptian rebellion
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Where did Xerxes put 2 rebellions down?
Babylon
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What league did the 30 cities who allied against Xerxes create?
The hellenic league
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Which 2 cities did Xerxes not demand earth and water from?
Sparta and Athens
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What did Xerxes add to Persepolis?
The gate of all lands
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What canal did Xerxes build?
The Athos Canal
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Where did Xerxes build a bridge?
Over the hellespont, made of ships, the first one broke and he beheaded the advisors
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What year did Xerxes die, and how?
465BC, he was killed by one of his royal guards, Artabanus
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Who succeeded Xerxes?
His son Artaxerxes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who did Cyrus defeat in 550BC?

Back

Astyages and the Medes, used Harpagus to get army to switch sides

Card 3

Front

What happened to Astyage's after he was defeated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who did Cyrus defeat in 546BC?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the battle against the Lydians called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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