The Periodic Table

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 17-04-16 16:04
What is the chemistry of an element governed by and what do we arrange elements in groups according to?
The outer electrons in which it has and according to their outer structure.
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What's the pattern with I.E and electronegativity?
Ionisation energy and electronegativity increase diagonally across the periodic table.
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What does valency do?
Rises with group number up until a maximum of four, wear it falls to one in group 7.
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When are elements generally metals?
When I.E's are low in the left and lower regions of the periodic table and the d-block elements
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When are elements non-metals?
Non-metals occur in the high I.E. upper right portion.
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What do melting temperatures depend on?
Atomic mass, bond type and the type of solid structure.
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What's the pattern for melting temperatures?
They decrease down Group 1, rise down Group 7, increase across a period up to Group 4 and drop sharply as elements form diatomic molecules held in the solid by weak intermolecular forces.
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When is a species being oxidised or reduced?
If it loses electrons it's being oxidised, if it gains electrons it's being reduced.
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What does the nemonic OILRIG stand for?
Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain
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What do all elements have an oxidation state of?
Zero
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What is hydrogens oxidation number in compounds?
1 or +1
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What is oxygens oxidation number?
-2 or -11
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What are the oxidiation numbers of Group 1 and 2 in compounds?
1 and 2 respectively
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What are the oxidation numbers of Group 6 and 7 in compounds?
-2 and -1 respectively
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What is the oxidation of an element bonded to itself?
0
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What must the oxidation numbers add up to?
The oxidation numbers of the elements in a compound or ion must add up to zero or the charge of the ion
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What are the s-block elements?
They're all reactive, electropositive metals forming cations with the oxidation numbers of 1 or 2 respectively.
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What do the s-block metals react like with water?
Lithium reacts slowly. Potassium reactions violently. Magnesium reacts slowly. Barium reacts faster.
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What is a factor of all group 2 carbonates?
They're insoluble
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What is a factor of all s-block nitrates?
They're soluble
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What does the thermal stability of group 2 hydroxides and carbonates do?
It increases down the group
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What does calcium carbonate have great importance in?
Living and inorganic systems
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What does calcium phosphate have great importance in?
Minerals in living bones and skeletons.
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What do calcium and magnesium ions play a vital role in?
They play a vital role in the biochemsitry of living systems -chlorophyll, musce operation. The carbonates exist in huge amounts in rocks such as chalk, limestone and dolomite.
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What are the halogens?
They're reactive, electronegative elements. They form anions having an oxidation state of -1 so that oxidation is the usual reaction.
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What are some factors of the halogens?
The tendency to form anions decreases down the group. The MT of the elements increase down the group.
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What do halogens react with?
Most metals in order to form halides.
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What's the general reaction of halide ions with silver ions in dilute nitric acid?
Ag+(aq) + X-(aq) > AgX(s)
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What are the precipiate colours?
Chloride (white), Bromide (pale cream) and Iodide (pale yellow) and only the silver chloride dissolves in dilute ammonia.
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What is chlorine used in and why?
Water treatment. It makes water safe to drink and use, it kills pathogenic bacteria and viruses, preventing the outbreak of serious diseases.
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What is chlorine commonly added as?
The gaseous element, it sets up the equilibrium below in water:
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What is fluoride added to?
Water and toothpaste. It reduces tooth decay caused by cavity formation and strengthens bones, reducing osteoporosis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What's the pattern with I.E and electronegativity?

Back

Ionisation energy and electronegativity increase diagonally across the periodic table.

Card 3

Front

What does valency do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When are elements generally metals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When are elements non-metals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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