The Periodic Table

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  • Created by: Lotto65
  • Created on: 24-12-15 11:17
What are elements arranged in order of in the periodic table?
Atomic number
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What are the vertical columns called in the periodic table?
Groups
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What are the horizontal rows called in the periodic table?
Periods
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Why do groups of elements have similar chemical properties?
All atoms in that group have the same number of electrons on outer shell
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The number of electrons on the outer shell is the same as...
The group number
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Why are noble gases of group 0 unreactive?
They have a fully occupied outer shell which makes them very stable
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Group 1 and 2 metals react vigorously with........
Oxygen; Chlorine; water
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Are reactive metals soft or hard?
Soft--> can be cut easily
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Are transition metals reactive?
No
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Give two transition metals that are unreactive?
Silver and Gold
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What sort of melting and boiling points do non-metals have?
Low
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What state are non-metals normally at room temperature because of this?
Liquids and gases
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What do we call group 1 metals?
Alkali metals
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What state are alkali metals at room temperature?
Soft solids
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What sort of melting and boiling points do alkali metals have?
Low
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What densities do alkali metals have? What property does this give them?
Low so they can float on water
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What is the trend of melting and boiling points in alkali metals?
Decreases down the group
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Complete this: Alkali metal + water -->
Hydrogen gas + metal hydroxide
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What charge do alkali metals have?
+1
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How many electrons do alkali metals have on their outer shell?
1
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When alkali metals form ions, what happens to their outer electrons?
They lose their 1 electron to have a positive charge
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Complete this: Alkali metal + halogen -->
Salt
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What colour are the salts formed when an alkali metal reacts with a halogen?
White or colourless crystals
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What colour are the solutions when an alkali metal dissolves in water?
Colourless
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What happens to the reactivity down the group of alkali metals?
Increases because their melting and boiling point decreases
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Where are the transition metals found on the periodic table?
Between groups 2 and 3
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What is another name for transition metals?
Transition elements
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Do transition metals have lower or higher melting/ boiling points than alkali metals? What is the exception to that?
Higher Mercury
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What are the properties of transition metals?
Malleable; ductile; good conductors of heat and electricity; dense; strong
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How do transition metals react with oxygen and water?
Slowly or not at all at ordinary temperatures
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What are some uses of transition metals- give the characteristic that allows them to do so
Dyes- compounds of metals are brightly coloured; building materials as alloys- strong and dense; catalysts; wires/ water tanks- good conductors of heat and electricity
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What sort of ions do transition metals form?
Positive
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What group are halogens in?
Group 7
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Are halogens metals or non-metals?
Non-metals
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Are halogens small or large molecules?
Small
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How do halogens exist?
In pairs
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What sort of bond holds this pair together?
Covalent bond
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Do halogens have a low or high melting and boiling point?
Low
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What is the trend of melting and boiling points of halogens going down the group?
Increases going down
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What state and colour are the halogens at room temperature to prove this rule?
Fluorine- pale yellow gas; Chlorine- green gas; Bromine- red/brown liquid; Iodine- Grey solid
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What colour is iodine when it vaporises?
Violet
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Does iodine easily vaporise?
Yes
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Are halogens good or poor conductors of heat and electricity?
Poor
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How many electrons do halogens have on their highest energy level?
7
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How do halogens bond to metals?
Ionically
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What are the ions of halogens called?
Halide ions
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What charge to halide ions have?
1-
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What can halogens bond with?
Metals and non-metals
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How do halogens bond with non-metals?
Covalently
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What is the trend in reactivity of halogens going down the group?
Decreases
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What can a more reactive halogen do to a less reactive halogen? What is the condition required?
Displace--> An aqueous solution of a halide compound included
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As atoms get larger, how strongly attracted are the outer electrons to the nucleus?
Not very
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What makes an atom larger?
The number of energy levels it has
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What is the general trend of all metals with reactivity going down the group?
Increases
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What is the general trend with all non-metals and reactivity going down the group?
Decreases
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Why does the reactivity of alkali metals increase down the group?
Atoms get larger down the group so the outer electron is not as strongly attracted to the nucleus because there are more occupied energy levels. It is easy to lose the outer electron
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Why does the reactivity of halogens decrease down the group?
Halogens gain electrons when they bond. As the number of occupied energy levels increases, the attraction of a free electron decreases because other electrons block the force of attraction and the electron is further away so the force is weaker
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the vertical columns called in the periodic table?

Back

Groups

Card 3

Front

What are the horizontal rows called in the periodic table?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do groups of elements have similar chemical properties?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The number of electrons on the outer shell is the same as...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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