The Neural System

  • Created by: cleojoy
  • Created on: 17-06-18 11:47
The Brain
organ that is made up of a large mass of nerve tissue that is protected within the skull.
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3 main functions of the brain
Processing sensory information, regulating blood pressure and breathing, and releasing hormones.
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Spinal Cord
A complex cylinder of nerves that starts at the base of a persons brain and runs down the back bone. its main function is to provide support to a persons body. They can stand up straight, bend and twist.
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Afferent (Sensory) Nerve
a nerve that carries sensory information towards the central nervous system.
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Motor Nerve
Carries impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland in the body. They are responsible for bringing the nerve impulses from the CNS to the effector organs.
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Neuron
The units of the brains nervous system. The cells are responsible for recieving sensory input from the external world, sending motor commands to our muscles and fro transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step inbetween.
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3 Main parts of a neuron
Dendrites, an axon and a cell body.
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Mylein Sheath
A fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells. It wraps around the fibres that are the long thread like part of a nerve cell. It protects the axons.
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Cerebral Hemispheres
They control the activity of the lower levels of the CNS. They control muscle functions, speech, thoughts, emotions, reading, writing and learning.
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Cerebellum
Located behind the top of the brain stem and is made of 2 halves. It receives information from the sensory systems and then regulates movements. It coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance and coordination.
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Hypothalamus
Located at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. It releases hormones, regulates body temperature, and regulates emotional responses.
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Pituitary gland
Major endocrine gland that controls all of the other endocrine glands such as the pancreas or thyroid gland. It os around the size of a pea and is attached to the base of the brain by a stalk. Its main function is to secrete hormones.
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The Medulla
Its is located in the brain, its functions are involuntary. We wouldn't be able to live without it. It's main function is to carry out and regulate life sustaining functions such as breathing and heart rate.
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Corpus Callosum
This connects the right and left hemispheres. It is a bundle of nerve tissues that contains over 200 million axons.
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Cerebral Cortex
Part of the brain that functions to make humans unique. Its is divided into 4 lobes: Frontal, Temporal, Parietal and Occipital.
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Frontal Lobe
Located at the front of the brain and is associated with motor skills, high levels of cognition and language.
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Temporal Lobe
Located ni the bottom section of the brain and is associated with sound and the language that we hear. Damage to it can lead to problems with memory and speech perception.
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Parietal Lobe
Located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing sensory information such as pressure touch or pain. Generally concerned with sensation and perception.
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Occipital Lobe
Located at the back of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and information. Damage to this lobe can cause visual problems such as difficulty recognising objects and an inability to identify colours.
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Co-ordination as a function of the neural system
The nervous system regulates the body's activities and responses.This means that the endocrine system regulates and coordinates the body functions by the hormones in the body.
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Balance as a function of the neural system
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that helps maintain balance in the body.
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Memory as a function of the neural system
Memory is stored all over the brain rather than in just one place. However, memory loss can be a symptom of brain dysfunction.
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Emotions
The limbic system is the part of the brain that is most heavily used in emotion.
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Dysfunctions of the neural system: Stroke
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off. It is a medical emergency that need urgent treatment.
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3 Symptoms of a Stroke
Slurred speech, their face may have drooped to one side and they will be unable to smile, may be unable to lift their arms.
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Dysfunctions of the neural System: Multiple Scelerosis
An autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks healthy parts of the body. It is a lifelong condition that can cause serious disability.
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Symptoms of Multiple Selerosis
Fatigue, Vision Problems, Muscle Stiffness and Balance problems.
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Dysfunctions of the Neural System: Parkinson's Disease
A condition where parts of the brain become damaged over years. It is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra which leads to a reduction of dopamine in the brain.
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Three main symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Involuntary shaking of parts of the body such as the hands, Slow movement and stiff and inflexible muscles.
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2 Causes of Multiple Scelerosis
Genes- can be inheritied, can occur due to excessive smoking,
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Causes of Parkinson's disease
Genetics- can run in families as a result of faulty genes being passed down to children,
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Causes of a Stroke
A persons lifestyle can cuase a stroke such as smoking or obesity as this can cause them to have blood clots.
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Diagnosing Parkinson's disease
Spinal fluid analysis- a group of laboratory tests that measure the proteins and suagrs ni the fluid the protects the spinal cord. A lumbar puncture is the most common way to collect this sample.
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Diagnosing Multiple Scelerosis
Evoked Visual Response- measure the elctrical activity of the brain in response to the stimulation of sensory nerve pathways.
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Diagnosing Strokes
A blood test may be used to diagnose a stroke to see how fast the patients blood clots and whether their blood sugar is high or low.
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Treatments for MS
The use of stem cells could help treat MS. Some specialist stem cells have the ability to stop immune responses making them useful as a therapy fro MS.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Processing sensory information, regulating blood pressure and breathing, and releasing hormones.

Back

3 main functions of the brain

Card 3

Front

A complex cylinder of nerves that starts at the base of a persons brain and runs down the back bone. its main function is to provide support to a persons body. They can stand up straight, bend and twist.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a nerve that carries sensory information towards the central nervous system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Carries impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland in the body. They are responsible for bringing the nerve impulses from the CNS to the effector organs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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