The Nazi Road to Dictatorship 1932-3

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Nazis tended to win a higher proportion of support from which social groups?
Peasants and farmers, the 'Mittelstand', the established middle classes (e.g. white-collar workers)
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Why were Catholics and socialists not so readily drawn to voting Nazi?
They represented well-established ideologies in their own write which opposed Nazism on an intellectual level, they struggled under the Second Reich making the Nazi message less appealing, their organisational structures countered Nazi propaganda
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Hitler exploited the 'politics of anxiety', what was the 'politics of anxiety'?
When the middle-class electorate is united above all by a profound contempt or the existing political and economic system
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What percentage of the Nazi membership who joined before 1933, were born between 1904 and 1913?
41.3%
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How did the youth see Nazism?
As a movement for change, not a search for respectability
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Which political party had the broadest cross-section of supporters?
The NSDAP
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What was a 'Volkspartei'?
A people's party
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What did Hitler say all-effective propaganda must be in 'Mein Kampf'?
"all-effective propaganda must be confined to a few bare essentials and those must be expressed as far as possible in stereotyped formulas."
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How did Goebbels initiate a new approach in Nazi propaganda?
He practised mass politics on a grand scale, showing a subtlety and understanding of psychology
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How did Goebbels direct propaganda?
According to people's social and economic interests
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How did the NSDAP tailor its message to appeal to the unemployed and industrial workers?
By aiming to overcome the depression and offering 'Bread' and 'Work'
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How did the NSDAP tailor its message to appeal to the Mittelstand?
By limiting the control of large department stores
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How did the NSDAP tailor its message to appeal to farmers and peasants?
By offering special benefits to offset the collapse of agricultural prices
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How did the NSDAP tailor its message to appeal to industrialists?
By playing own the fear of nationalism and the state control of the economy
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What was the intention of the Nazis mass rallies?
To create an atmosphere so emotional that all members of the crowd would succumb to the collecitve will
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What is 'mass suggestion'?
A psychological term suggesting that large groups of people that be unified simply by the atmosphere of the occasion
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Which three unifying themes dominated Nazi propaganda?
The Führer cult, the Volksgemeinschaft, German nationalism
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Who were the Nazis scapegoats, blamed for Germany's suffering?
The 'November criminals', Communists, Jews
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During July 1932 how many political riots were there in Prussia?
461
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How many voted for the Nazis in the July 1932 elections?
13,745,000
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Geographically where was the base of Nazi support higher in Germany?
In the North and East
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When was a vote of no confidence in Papen's government passed by the government? and, by what amount of votes?
12 September 1932, by 512 to 42
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By how many votes did the Nazis fall on 6 November?
11.7million
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Why was Papen dismissed as Chancellor?
When Schleicher informed Hindenburg of the army's lack of confidence in Papen, Hindenburg demanded his resignation
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Why was von Schleicher appointed Chancellor?
He gained the favour of Hindeburg
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What were Schleicher's aims as Chancellor?
To achieve political stability and restore national confidence
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What was Schleicher's two-pronged strategy to achieve his aims as Chancellor?
First, gain support from elements of the political left (Trade Unions), secondly, to split the Nazis and attract the more socialist wing of the Party through Strasser
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How did Papen believe he could regain political office?
By convincing Hindenburg that he could muster majority support in the Reichstag, which is why he contacted the Nazis
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What was agreed in Hitler and Papen's meeting on 4th January 1933?
Hitler should head a Nazi-Nationalist coalition government with Papen as vice-chancellor
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Did Schleicher achieve his aims as Chancellor?
He failed in his attempt to bring stability, only succeeding in frightening powerful vested interests with his ambitious plans
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What were the limitations of Hitler as Chancellor?
There were only two other Nazis in a cabinet of 12, Hitler's coalition didn't have a majority in the Reichstag, Chancellors had been dependent on the whim of Hindenburg
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Who were the other Nazis in Hitler's cabinet and what positions did they hold?
Frick was Minister of the Interior and Göring was a minister without portfolio
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Why was it significant Hitler's coalition did not have a Reichstag majority?
It would be difficult to introduce any dramatic legislation
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What were Hitler's strengths when he was made Chancellor?
He was leader of the largest party in the Reichstag, the Nazis had gained access to resources of the state, Göring had responsibility for the police, Hitler was a masterly political tactitian
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Why did Hitler call new elections upon his appointment as Chancellor?
He felt new elections would increase Nazi vote and enhance his status
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Göring used his authority to enrol how many Nazis into the police?
50,000 (all members of the SS and SA)
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How many people died during the five-week campaign for elections in March 1933?
69
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At a meeting of 20 leading industrialists 20th February, how many Reichsmarks was Hitler promised?
3million
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When was the Reichstag building set on fire?
27th February 1933
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What was the real significance of the Reichstag fire?
The way it was cynically exploited by the Nazis to justify repression
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What did the 'Decree for the Protection of People and State' signed on 28th Feb, effectively do?
Suspend most civil and political liberties and strengthen the power of central gov.
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What was the turnout of the March 1933 elections?
88%
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How many seats did the Nazis secure in March 1933?
288
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When was the Enabling Law passed?
21st March 1933
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When was the 'Day of Potsdam'?
21st March 1933
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What did the Enabling Law effectively do?
Transfer full powers to the Chancellor and his gov for four years, ground Hitler's dictatorship in legality
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What was the 'Day of Potsdam'?
A grandiose act of reassurance to conservative vested interests, in which Hitler symbolically aligned National Socialism with the forces of old Germany
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Why did Hitler promise in a speech on 23 March 1933, to respect the rights of the Catholic Church and to uphold religious and moral values?
In order to retain their backing to pass the Enabling Law
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By how many votes was the Enabling Law passed?
444 to 94
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Card 2

Front

Why were Catholics and socialists not so readily drawn to voting Nazi?

Back

They represented well-established ideologies in their own write which opposed Nazism on an intellectual level, they struggled under the Second Reich making the Nazi message less appealing, their organisational structures countered Nazi propaganda

Card 3

Front

Hitler exploited the 'politics of anxiety', what was the 'politics of anxiety'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What percentage of the Nazi membership who joined before 1933, were born between 1904 and 1913?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did the youth see Nazism?

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